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Authored by TheDJ on Sep 25 2019, 8:11 AM.
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<html prefix="dc: http://purl.org/dc/terms/ mw: http://mediawiki.org/rdf/" about="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Redirect/revision/917744943"><head prefix="mwr: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Redirect/"><meta property="mw:TimeUuid" content="37f86070-df6b-11e9-aea0-6997e1f6c961"/><meta charset="utf-8"/><meta property="mw:pageNamespace" content="0"/><meta property="mw:pageId" content="1666662"/><link rel="dc:replaces" resource="mwr:revision/916801012"/><meta property="dc:modified" content="2019-09-25T08:05:07.000Z"/><meta property="mw:revisionSHA1" content="0d17cf4d91f5fbce7371468f1d94a5e241c1984b"/><meta property="mw:html:version" content="2.1.0"/><link rel="dc:isVersionOf" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Stink"/><title>Great Stink</title><base href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"/><link rel="stylesheet" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/load.php?modules=mediawiki.legacy.commonPrint%2Cshared%7Cmediawiki.skinning.content.parsoid%7Cmediawiki.skinning.interface%7Cskins.vector.styles%7Csite.styles%7Cext.cite.style%7Cext.cite.styles%7Cmediawiki.page.gallery.styles&amp;only=styles&amp;skin=vector"/><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src="//en.wikipedia.org/w/load.php?modules=html5shiv&amp;only=scripts&amp;skin=vector&amp;sync=1"></script><script>html5.addElements('figure-inline');</script><![endif]--><meta http-equiv="content-language" content="en"/><meta http-equiv="vary" content="Accept"/></head><body id="mwAA" lang="en" class="mw-content-ltr sitedir-ltr ltr mw-body-content parsoid-body mediawiki mw-parser-output" dir="ltr"><section data-mw-section-id="0" id="mwAQ"><p id="mwAg"><span typeof="mw:Nowiki mw:Transclusion" about="#mwt1" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"featured article","href":"./Template:Featured_article"},"params":{},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAw"></span><link typeof="mw:Extension/indicator" about="#mwt1" data-mw='{"name":"indicator","attrs":{"name":"featured-star"},"body":{"extsrc":"[[File:cscr-featured.svg|20x20px\n |link=Wikipedia:Featured articles\n |\n |This is a featured article. Click here for more information.]]\n"}}'/><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:Featured_articles" about="#mwt1" id="mwBA"/>
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<figure class="mw-default-size" typeof="mw:Image/Thumb" id="mwCQ"><a href="./File:The_silent_highwayman.jpg" id="mwCg"><img resource="./File:The_silent_highwayman.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/The_silent_highwayman.jpg/300px-The_silent_highwayman.jpg" data-file-width="975" data-file-height="745" data-file-type="bitmap" height="229" width="300" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/The_silent_highwayman.jpg/600px-The_silent_highwayman.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/The_silent_highwayman.jpg/450px-The_silent_highwayman.jpg 1.5x" id="mwCw"/></a><figcaption id="mwDA">"The Silent Highwayman" (1858). Death rows on the Thames, claiming the lives of victims who have not paid to have the river cleaned up.</figcaption></figure>
<p id="mwDQ">The <b id="mwDg">Great Stink</b> was an event in central London in July and August 1858 during which the hot weather exacerbated the smell of untreated <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Human_waste" title="Human waste" id="mwDw">human waste</a> and industrial <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Effluent" title="Effluent" id="mwEA">effluent</a> that was present on the banks of the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./River_Thames" title="River Thames" id="mwEQ">River Thames</a>. The problem had been mounting for some years, with an ageing and inadequate sewer system that emptied directly into the Thames. The <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Miasma_theory" title="Miasma theory" id="mwEg">miasma</a> from the effluent was thought to transmit contagious diseases, and three outbreaks of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Cholera" title="Cholera" id="mwEw">cholera</a> before the Great Stink were blamed on the ongoing problems with the river.</p>
<p id="mwFA">The smell, and fears of its possible effects, prompted action from the local and national administrators who had been considering possible solutions for the problem. The authorities accepted a proposal from the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Civil_engineer" title="Civil engineer" id="mwFQ">civil engineer</a> <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Joseph_Bazalgette" title="Joseph Bazalgette" id="mwFg">Joseph Bazalgette</a> to move the effluent eastwards along a series of interconnecting sewers that sloped towards <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Outfall" title="Outfall" id="mwFw">outfalls</a> beyond the metropolitan area. Work on high-, mid- and low-level systems for the new <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Northern_Outfall_Sewer" title="Northern Outfall Sewer" id="mwGA">Northern</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Southern_Outfall_Sewer" title="Southern Outfall Sewer" id="mwGQ">Southern Outfall Sewers</a> started at the beginning of 1859 and lasted until 1875. To aid the drainage, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Pumping_station#Sewage_systems" title="Pumping station" id="mwGg">pumping stations</a> were placed to lift the sewage from lower levels into higher pipes. Two of the more ornate stations, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Abbey_Mills_Pumping_Stations" title="Abbey Mills Pumping Stations" id="mwGw" class="mw-redirect">Abbey Mills</a> in <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Stratford,_London" title="Stratford, London" id="mwHA">Stratford</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Crossness_Pumping_Station" title="Crossness Pumping Station" id="mwHQ">Crossness</a> on the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Erith_Marshes" title="Erith Marshes" id="mwHg">Erith Marshes</a>, are <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Listed_building" title="Listed building" id="mwHw">listed</a> for protection by <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./English_Heritage" title="English Heritage" id="mwIA">English Heritage</a>. Bazalgette's plan introduced the three embankments to London in which the sewers ran—the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Victoria_Embankment" title="Victoria Embankment" id="mwIQ">Victoria</a>, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Chelsea_Embankment" title="Chelsea Embankment" id="mwIg">Chelsea</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Albert_Embankment" title="Albert Embankment" id="mwIw">Albert Embankments</a>.</p>
<p id="mwJA">Bazalgette's work ensured that sewage was no longer dumped onto the shores of the Thames and brought an end to the cholera outbreaks; his actions are thought to have saved more lives than the efforts of any other Victorian official. His sewer system operates into the 21st century, servicing a city that has grown to a population of over eight million. The historian <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peter_Ackroyd" title="Peter Ackroyd" id="mwJQ">Peter Ackroyd</a> argues that Bazalgette should be considered a hero of London.</p>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="1" id="mwJg"><h2 id="Background">Background</h2>
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<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r889293853/mw-parser-output/.tmulti" about="#mwt5" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"multiple image\n&lt;!-- Essential parameters -->\n","href":"./Template:Multiple_image"},"params":{"align":{"wt":"right"},"direction":{"wt":"horizontal"},"header":{"wt":"Satirical impressions of Father Thames&lt;br />in the mid-19th century, from &apos;&apos;[[Punch (magazine)|Punch]]&apos;&apos;"},"width":{"wt":"&lt;!-- Image 1 -->"},"image1":{"wt":"Dirty father Thames.jpg"},"width1":{"wt":"279"},"alt1":{"wt":""},"caption1":{"wt":"\"Dirty Father Thames\" (1848)&lt;br />\nFilthy river, filthy river,&lt;br />Foul from London to the Nore,&lt;br />What art thou but one vast gutter,&lt;br />One tremendous common shore?\n&lt;!-- Image 2 -->"},"image2":{"wt":"Caricature; Faraday giving his card to Father Thames. Wellcome M0012507.jpg"},"width2":{"wt":"167"},"alt2":{"wt":""},"caption2":{"wt":"\"[[Michael Faraday]] giving his card to Father Thames\", commenting on Faraday gauging the river&apos;s \"degree of opacity\""}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwKQ"/><div class="thumb tmulti tright" about="#mwt5" id="mwKg"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:454px;max-width:454px"><div class="trow"><div class="theader" style="text-align:center;background-color:transparent">Satirical impressions of Father Thames<br/>in the mid-19th century, from <i><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Punch_(magazine)" title="Punch (magazine)">Punch</a></i></div></div><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:281px;max-width:281px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:Dirty_father_Thames.jpg"><img alt="" resource="./File:Dirty_father_Thames.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Dirty_father_Thames.jpg/279px-Dirty_father_Thames.jpg" data-file-width="621" data-file-height="509" data-file-type="bitmap" height="229" width="279" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Dirty_father_Thames.jpg/558px-Dirty_father_Thames.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Dirty_father_Thames.jpg/419px-Dirty_father_Thames.jpg 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption">"Dirty Father Thames" (1848)<br/>
Filthy river, filthy river,<br/>Foul from London to the Nore,<br/>What art thou but one vast gutter,<br/>One tremendous common shore?</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="width:169px;max-width:169px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:Caricature;_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg"><img alt="" resource="./File:Caricature;_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Caricature%3B_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg/167px-Caricature%3B_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg" data-file-width="2934" data-file-height="4013" data-file-type="bitmap" height="228" width="167" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Caricature%3B_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg/334px-Caricature%3B_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Caricature%3B_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg/251px-Caricature%3B_Faraday_giving_his_card_to_Father_Thames._Wellcome_M0012507.jpg 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption">"<a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Michael_Faraday" title="Michael Faraday">Michael Faraday</a> giving his card to Father Thames", commenting on Faraday gauging the river's "degree of opacity"</div></div></div></div></div>
<p id="mwKw">Brick sewers had been built in London from the 17th century when sections of the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./River_Fleet" title="River Fleet" id="mwLA">Fleet</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Walbrook" title="Walbrook" id="mwLQ">Walbrook</a> rivers were covered for that purpose.<sup about="#mwt6" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-2" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"The Fleet and Walbrook rivers, along with numerous others, still [[Subterranean rivers of London|flow under modern-day London]].{{sfn|Talling|2011|pp=40 &amp; 42}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-2" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 1;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwLg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwLw">[lower-alpha 1]</span></a></sup> In the century preceding 1856, over a hundred sewers were constructed in London, and at that date the city had around 200,000 <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Cesspit" title="Cesspit" id="mwMA">cesspits</a> and 360 sewers. Some cesspits leaked <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Methane" title="Methane" id="mwMQ">methane</a> and other gases, which often caught fire and exploded, leading to loss of life, while many of the sewers were in a poor state of repair.<sup about="#mwt7" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201169–70_3-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Ackroyd"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"pp":{"wt":"69–70"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201169–70-3" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 2;" id="mwMg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwMw">[2]</span></a></sup> During the early 19th century improvements had been undertaken in the supply of water to Londoners, and by 1858 many of the city's medieval wooden water pipes were being replaced with iron ones. This, combined with the introduction of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Flush_toilet" title="Flush toilet" id="mwNA">flushing toilets</a> and the rising of the city's population from just under one million to three million,<sup about="#mwt8" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-5" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"The rise took place in the first half of the nineteenth century.{{sfn|Dobraszczyk|2014|p=7}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-5" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 2;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwNQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwNg">[lower-alpha 2]</span></a></sup> led to more water being flushed into the sewers, along with the associated <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Effluent" title="Effluent" id="mwNw">effluent</a>. The <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Outfall" title="Outfall" id="mwOA">outfalls</a> from factories, slaughterhouses and other industrial activities put further strain on the already failing system. Much of this outflow either overflowed, or discharged directly, into the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames" title="Thames" id="mwOQ" class="mw-redirect">Thames</a>.<sup about="#mwt9" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9_6-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"pp":{"wt":"8–9"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9-6" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 4;" id="mwOg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwOw">[4]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt10" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEOwen198247_7-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Owen"},"2":{"wt":"1982"},"p":{"wt":"47"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247-7" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 5;" id="mwPA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwPQ">[5]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwPg">The scientist <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Michael_Faraday" title="Michael Faraday" id="mwPw">Michael Faraday</a> described the situation in a letter to <i id="mwQA"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Times" title="The Times" id="mwQQ">The Times</a></i> in July 1855: shocked at the state of the Thames, he dropped pieces of white paper into the river to "test the degree of opacity". His conclusion was that "Near the bridges the feculence rolled up in clouds so dense that they were visible at the surface, even in water of this kind.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwQg"> </span>... The smell was very bad, and common to the whole of the water; it was the same as that which now comes up from the gully-holes in the streets; the whole river was for the time a real sewer."<sup about="#mwt15" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Times:_Faraday_8-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Times: Faraday"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times:_Faraday-8" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 6;" id="mwQw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwRA">[6]</span></a></sup> The smell from the river was so bad that in 1857 the government poured chalk lime, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Chloride_of_lime" title="Chloride of lime" id="mwRQ" class="mw-redirect">chloride of lime</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Carbolic_acid" title="Carbolic acid" id="mwRg" class="mw-redirect">carbolic acid</a> into the waterway to ease the stench.<sup about="#mwt12" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224_9-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Flanders"},"2":{"wt":"2012"},"p":{"wt":"224"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224-9" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 7;" id="mwRw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwSA">[7]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt13" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011248_10-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Hibbert"},"2":{"wt":"Weinreb"},"3":{"wt":"Keay"},"4":{"wt":"Keay"},"5":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"248"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011248-10" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 8;" id="mwSQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwSg">[8]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwSw">The prevailing thought in Victorian healthcare concerning the transmission of contagious diseases was the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Miasma_theory" title="Miasma theory" id="mwTA">miasma theory</a>, which held that most communicable diseases were caused by the inhalation of contaminated air. This contamination could take the form of the odour of rotting corpses or sewage, but also rotting vegetation, or the exhaled breath of someone already diseased.<sup about="#mwt16" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday20011469_11-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2001"},"p":{"wt":"1469"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20011469-11" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 9;" id="mwTQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwTg">[9]</span></a></sup> Miasma was believed by most to be the vector of transmission of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Cholera" title="Cholera" id="mwTw">cholera</a>, which was on the rise in 19th-century Europe. The disease was deeply feared by all, because of the speed with which it could spread, and its high fatality rates.<sup about="#mwt17" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20149_12-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"9"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20149-12" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 10;" id="mwUA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwUQ">[10]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwUg">London's first major cholera epidemic struck in 1831 when the disease claimed 6,536 victims. In 1848–49 there was a second outbreak in which 14,137 London residents died, and this was followed by a further outbreak in 1853–54 in which 10,738 died. During the second outbreak, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Snow_(physician)" title="John Snow (physician)" id="mwUw" class="mw-redirect">John Snow</a>, a London-based physician, noticed that the rates of death were higher in those areas supplied by the Lambeth and the Southwark and Vauxhall water companies. In 1849 he published a paper, <i id="mwVA">On the Mode of Communication of Cholera</i>, which posited the theory of the water-borne transmission of disease, rather than the miasma theory; little attention was paid to the paper.<sup about="#mwt18" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERyan200811_13-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Ryan"},"2":{"wt":"2008"},"p":{"wt":"11"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTERyan200811-13" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 11;" id="mwVQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwVg">[11]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt19" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnow2004_14-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Snow"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnow2004-14" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 12;" id="mwVw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwWA">[12]</span></a></sup> Following the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak" title="1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak" id="mwWQ">third cholera outbreak in 1854</a>, Snow published an update to his treatise, after he focused on the effects in Broad Street, Soho.<sup about="#mwt20" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnow2004_14-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Snow"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnow2004-14" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 12;" id="mwWg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwWw">[12]</span></a></sup> Snow had removed the handle from the local water pump, thus preventing access to the contaminated water, with a resulting fall in deaths. It was later established that a leaking sewer ran near the well from which the water was drawn.<sup about="#mwt21" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnow2004_14-2" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Snow"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnow2004-14" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 12;" id="mwXA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwXQ">[12]</span></a></sup></p>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="2" id="mwXg"><h2 id="Local_government">Local government</h2>
<p id="mwXw">The civic infrastructure overseeing the management of London's sewers had gone through several changes in the 19th century. In 1848 the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Commission_of_Sewers" title="Metropolitan Commission of Sewers" id="mwYA">Metropolitan Commission of Sewers</a> (MCS) was established at the urging of the social reformer <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Edwin_Chadwick" title="Edwin Chadwick" id="mwYQ">Edwin Chadwick</a> and a Royal Commission.<sup about="#mwt22" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEClayton201064_15-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Clayton"},"2":{"wt":"2010"},"p":{"wt":"64"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEClayton201064-15" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 13;" id="mwYg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwYw">[13]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt23" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415_16-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"15"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415-16" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 14;" id="mwZA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwZQ">[14]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt24" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-18" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Chadwick—a barrister by training—was keen to improve sanitary conditions and public health; in 1842 he had published the &apos;&apos;Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain&apos;&apos;, a best-selling publication. In 1843 he served on a royal commission on the health of towns, before service on a second royal commission in 1847, which resulted in the formation of the [[Metropolitan Commission of Sewers]].{{sfn|Mandler|2004}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-18" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 3;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwZg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwZw">[lower-alpha 3]</span></a></sup> The Commission superseded seven of the eight authorities that had managed London's sewers since the time of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Henry_VIII" title="Henry VIII" id="mwaA" class="mw-redirect">Henry VIII</a>;<sup about="#mwt25" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-19" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"The authority overseeing the works in the [[City of London]] remained separate.{{sfn|Dobraszczyk|2014|p=15}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-19" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 4;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwaQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwag">[lower-alpha 4]</span></a></sup> it was the first time that a unitary power had full control over the capital's sanitation facilities. The Building Act 1844 had ensured that all new buildings had to be connected to a sewer, not a cesspool, and the commission set about connecting cesspools to sewers, or removing them altogether.<sup about="#mwt26" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEOwen198247–48_20-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Owen"},"2":{"wt":"1982"},"pp":{"wt":"47–48"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247–48-20" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 16;" id="mwaw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwbA">[16]</span></a></sup> Because of the fear that the miasma from the sewers would cause the spread of disease, Chadwick and his successor, the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Pathology" title="Pathology" id="mwbQ">pathologist</a> <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Simon_(pathologist)" title="John Simon (pathologist)" id="mwbg">John Simon</a>, ensured that the sewers were regularly flushed through, a policy that resulted in more sewage being discharged into the Thames.<sup about="#mwt27" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966_21-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Trench"},"2":{"wt":"Hillman"},"3":{"wt":"1989"},"p":{"wt":"66"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966-21" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 17;" id="mwbw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwcA">[17]</span></a></sup></p>
<figure class="mw-default-size mw-halign-left" typeof="mw:Image/Thumb" id="mwcQ"><a href="./File:JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg" id="mwcg"><img resource="./File:JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/86/JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg/220px-JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg" data-file-width="606" data-file-height="753" data-file-type="bitmap" height="273" width="220" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/86/JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg/440px-JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/86/JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg/330px-JosephBazalgettePortrait.jpg 1.5x" id="mwcw"/></a><figcaption id="mwdA"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Joseph_Bazalgette" title="Joseph Bazalgette" id="mwdQ">Joseph Bazalgette</a> in the 1870s</figcaption></figure>
<p id="mwdg">In August 1849 the MCS appointed <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Joseph_Bazalgette" title="Joseph Bazalgette" id="mwdw">Joseph Bazalgette</a> to the position of assistant surveyor. He had been working as a consultant engineer in the railway industry until overwork had brought about a serious breakdown in his health; his appointment to the commission was his first position on his return to employment.<sup about="#mwt29" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mweA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mweQ">[18]</span></a></sup> Working under the chief engineer, Frank Foster, he began to develop a more systematic plan for the city's sewers. The stress of his position was too much for Foster and he died in 1852; Bazalgette was promoted into his position, and continued refining and developing the plans for the development of the sewerage system. The <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolis_Management_Act_1855" title="Metropolis Management Act 1855" id="mweg">Metropolis Management Act 1855</a> replaced the commission with the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Board_of_Works" title="Metropolitan Board of Works" id="mwew">Metropolitan Board of Works</a> (MBW), which took control of the sewers.<sup about="#mwt30" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mwfA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwfQ">[18]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt33" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-History:_JB_biog_23-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"History: JB biog"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-History:_JB_biog-23" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 19;" id="mwfg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwfw">[19]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt31" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-25" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Bazalgette had to apply for the position of chief engineer against eight others; his application for the role—which was successful—was supported by [[Robert Stephenson]], MP, the co-designer of the &apos;&apos;[[Stephenson&apos;s Rocket|Rocket]]&apos;&apos; with his father; the [[millwright]] and [[civil engineering|civil engineer]] [[William Cubitt]], who had designed and built two of Britain&apos;s railways systems; and the [[Mechanical engineering|mechanical]] and civil engineer [[Isambard Kingdom Brunel]].{{sfn|Halliday|2013|p=10}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-25" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 5;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwgA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwgQ">[lower-alpha 5]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwgg">By June 1856 Bazalgette completed his definitive plans, which provided for small, local sewers about <span about="#mwt34" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"3"},"2":{"wt":"ft"},"3":{"wt":"m"},"4":{"wt":"1"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwgw">3 feet (0.9</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt34"> </span><span about="#mwt34">m)</span> in diameter to feed into a series of larger sewers until they drained into main outflow pipes <span about="#mwt35" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"11"},"2":{"wt":"ft"},"3":{"wt":"m"},"4":{"wt":"1"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwhA">11 feet (3.4</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt35"> </span><span about="#mwt35">m)</span> high. A <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Northern_Outfall_Sewer" title="Northern Outfall Sewer" id="mwhQ">Northern</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Southern_Outfall_Sewer" title="Southern Outfall Sewer" id="mwhg">Southern Outfall Sewer</a> were planned to manage the waste for each side of the river.<sup about="#mwt36" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198972_26-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Trench"},"2":{"wt":"Hillman"},"3":{"wt":"1989"},"p":{"wt":"72"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198972-26" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 21;" id="mwhw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwiA">[21]</span></a></sup> London was mapped into high-, middle- and low-level areas, with a main sewer servicing each; a series of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Pumping_station#Sewage_systems" title="Pumping station" id="mwiQ">pumping stations</a> was planned to remove the waste towards the east of the city. Bazalgette's plan was based on that of Foster, but was larger in scale, and allowed for more of a rise in population than Foster's<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwig"> </span>– from 3 to 4.5<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwiw"> </span>million.<sup about="#mwt37" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201420–22_27-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"pp":{"wt":"20–22"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201420–22-27" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 22;" id="mwjA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwjQ">[22]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt38" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347_28-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"De Maré"},"2":{"wt":"Doré"},"3":{"wt":"1973"},"p":{"wt":"47"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347-28" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 23;" id="mwjg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwjw">[23]</span></a></sup> Bazalgette submitted his plans to Sir <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Benjamin_Hall,_1st_Baron_Llanover" title="Benjamin Hall, 1st Baron Llanover" id="mwkA">Benjamin Hall</a>, the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./First_Commissioner_of_Works" title="First Commissioner of Works" id="mwkQ">First Commissioner of Works</a>.<sup about="#mwt39" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-30" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Hall, an imposingly tall man, oversaw the rebuilding of much of the [[Palace of Westminster]], including the parliamentary clock in [[St Stephen&apos;s Tower]] (now named Elizabeth Tower); the principal bell of the tower—[[Big Ben]]—was named after him.{{sfn|Halliday|2013|p=59}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-30" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 6;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwkg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwkw">[lower-alpha 6]</span></a></sup> Hall had reservations about the outfalls—the discharge points of waste outlets into other bodies of water—from the sewers, which he said were still within the bounds of the capital, and were therefore unacceptable. During the ongoing discussions, Bazalgette refined and modified his plans, in line with Hall's demands. In December 1856 Hall submitted the plans to a group of three consultant engineers, Captain <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Douglas_Strutt_Galton" title="Douglas Strutt Galton" id="mwlA" class="mw-redirect">Douglas Strutt Galton</a> of the Royal Engineers, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./James_Simpson_(engineer)" title="James Simpson (engineer)" id="mwlQ">James Simpson</a>, an engineer with two water companies, and Thomas Blackwood, the chief engineer on the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Kennet_and_Avon_Canal" title="Kennet and Avon Canal" id="mwlg">Kennet and Avon Canal</a>. The trio reported back to Hall in July 1857 with proposed changes to the positions of the outfall, which he passed on to the MBW in October. The new proposed discharge points were to be open sewers, running <span about="#mwt40" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"15"},"2":{"wt":"mi"},"3":{"wt":"km"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwlw">15 miles (24</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt40"> </span><span about="#mwt40">km)</span> beyond the positions proposed by the board; the cost of their plans was to be over £5.4<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwmA"> </span>million, considerably more than the maximum estimate of Bazalgette's plan, which was £2.4<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwmQ"> </span>million.<sup about="#mwt41" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201368–70_31-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"68–70"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201368–70-31" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 25;" id="mwmg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwmw">[25]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt42" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-33" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"£5.4&amp;nbsp;million in 1857 equates to a little over £450&amp;nbsp;million in 2015; £2.4&amp;nbsp;million equates to a little over £200&amp;nbsp;million, according to calculations based on [[Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)|Consumer Price Index]] measure of inflation.{{inflation-fn|UK}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-33" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 7;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwnA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwnQ">[lower-alpha 7]</span></a></sup> In February 1858 a <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./United_Kingdom_general_elections_overview" title="United Kingdom general elections overview" id="mwng">general election</a> saw the fall of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Henry_John_Temple,_3rd_Viscount_Palmerston" title="Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston" id="mwnw">Lord Palmerston</a>'s <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Whig_government,_1855–1858" title="Whig government, 1855–1858" id="mwoA" class="mw-redirect">Whig government</a>, which was replaced by <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Edward_Smith-Stanley,_14th_Earl_of_Derby" title="Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby" id="mwoQ">Lord Derby</a>'s <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Second_Derby–Disraeli_ministry" title="Second Derby–Disraeli ministry" id="mwog">second Conservative ministry</a>; <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Manners,_7th_Duke_of_Rutland" title="John Manners, 7th Duke of Rutland" id="mwow">Lord John Manners</a> replaced Hall, and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Benjamin_Disraeli" title="Benjamin Disraeli" id="mwpA">Benjamin Disraeli</a> was appointed <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Leader_of_the_House_of_Commons" title="Leader of the House of Commons" id="mwpQ">Leader of the House of Commons</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Chancellor_of_the_Exchequer" title="Chancellor of the Exchequer" id="mwpg">Chancellor of the Exchequer</a>.<sup about="#mwt43" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_&amp;_73_34-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"71 &amp; 73"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_&amp;_73-34" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 27;" id="mwpw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwqA">[27]</span></a></sup></p>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="3" id="mwqQ"><h2 id="June_to_August_1858">June to August 1858</h2>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r889293853/mw-parser-output/.tmulti" about="#mwt44" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"multiple image\n&lt;!-- Essential parameters -->\n","href":"./Template:Multiple_image"},"params":{"align":{"wt":"right"},"direction":{"wt":"horizontal"},"header":{"wt":"&apos;&apos;Punch&apos;&apos; magazine&apos;s view of Father Thames, July 1858"},"width":{"wt":"&lt;!-- Image 1 -->"},"image1":{"wt":"How Dirty Old Father Thames was Whitewashed.JPG"},"width1":{"wt":"{{#expr: (140 * 1,115 / 949) round 0}}"},"alt1":{"wt":""},"caption1":{"wt":"A workman uses lime to disguise the smell of the Thames, reflecting fact that the curtains in Parliament were soaked with lime chloride to try to mask the odour.\n&lt;!-- Image 2 -->"},"image2":{"wt":"Father Thames introducing his offspring to the fair city of London.jpg"},"width2":{"wt":"218"},"alt2":{"wt":""},"caption2":{"wt":"\"Father Thames introducing his offspring to the fair city of London\"; the children are representative of [[diphtheria]], [[scrofula]] and [[cholera]]."}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwqg"/><div class="thumb tmulti tright" about="#mwt44" id="mwqw"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:426px;max-width:426px"><div class="trow"><div class="theader" style="text-align:center;background-color:transparent"><i>Punch</i> magazine's view of Father Thames, July 1858</div></div><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG"><img alt="" resource="./File:How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG/200px-How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG" data-file-width="1115" data-file-height="949" data-file-type="bitmap" height="170" width="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG/400px-How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG/300px-How_Dirty_Old_Father_Thames_was_Whitewashed.JPG 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption">A workman uses lime to disguise the smell of the Thames, reflecting fact that the curtains in Parliament were soaked with lime chloride to try to mask the odour.</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="width:220px;max-width:220px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg"><img alt="" resource="./File:Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg/218px-Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg" data-file-width="758" data-file-height="591" data-file-type="bitmap" height="170" width="218" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg/436px-Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg/327px-Father_Thames_introducing_his_offspring_to_the_fair_city_of_London.jpg 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption">"Father Thames introducing his offspring to the fair city of London"; the children are representative of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Diphtheria" title="Diphtheria">diphtheria</a>, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Scrofula" title="Scrofula" class="mw-redirect">scrofula</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Cholera" title="Cholera">cholera</a>.</div></div></div></div></div>
<p id="mwrA">By mid-1858 the problems with the Thames had been building for several years. In his novel <i id="mwrQ"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Little_Dorrit" title="Little Dorrit" id="mwrg">Little Dorrit</a></i>—published as a serial between 1855 and 1857—<a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Charles_Dickens" title="Charles Dickens" id="mwrw">Charles Dickens</a> wrote that the Thames was "a deadly sewer<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwsA"> </span>... in the place of a fine, fresh river".<sup about="#mwt49" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012223–24_35-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Flanders"},"2":{"wt":"2012"},"pp":{"wt":"223–24"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012223–24-35" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 28;" id="mwsQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwsg">[28]</span></a></sup> In a letter to a friend, Dickens said: "I can certify that the offensive smells, even in that short whiff, have been of a most head-and-stomach-distending nature",<sup about="#mwt50" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDickens2011451_36-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dickens"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"451"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDickens2011451-36" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 29;" id="mwsw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwtA">[29]</span></a></sup> while the social scientist and journalist <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./George_Godwin" title="George Godwin" id="mwtQ">George Godwin</a> wrote that "in parts the deposit is more than six feet deep" on the Thames foreshore, and that "the whole of this is thickly impregnated with impure matter".<sup about="#mwt51" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELewis2008243–44_37-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Lewis"},"2":{"wt":"2008"},"pp":{"wt":"243–44"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTELewis2008243–44-37" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 30;" id="mwtg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwtw">[30]</span></a></sup> In June 1858 the temperatures in the shade in London averaged <span about="#mwt52" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"34"},"2":{"wt":"-"},"3":{"wt":"36"},"4":{"wt":"C"},"5":{"wt":"0"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwuA">34–36</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt52"> </span><span about="#mwt52">°C (93–97</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt52"> </span><span about="#mwt52">°F)</span>—rising to <span about="#mwt53" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"48"},"2":{"wt":"C"},"3":{"wt":"0"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwuQ">48</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt53"> </span><span about="#mwt53">°C (118</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt53"> </span><span about="#mwt53">°F)</span> in the sun.<sup about="#mwt54" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224_9-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Flanders"},"2":{"wt":"2012"},"p":{"wt":"224"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224-9" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 7;" id="mwug"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwuw">[7]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt59" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Standard:_temps_38-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Standard: temps"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Standard:_temps-38" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 31;" id="mwvA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwvQ">[31]</span></a></sup> Combined with an extended spell of dry weather, the level of the Thames dropped and raw effluent from the sewers remained on the banks of the river.<sup about="#mwt55" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224_9-2" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Flanders"},"2":{"wt":"2012"},"p":{"wt":"224"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224-9" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 7;" id="mwvg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwvw">[7]</span></a></sup> Queen Victoria and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Albert,_Prince_Consort" title="Albert, Prince Consort" id="mwwA">Prince Albert</a> attempted to take a pleasure cruise on the Thames, but returned to shore within a few minutes because the smell was so terrible.<sup about="#mwt56" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201175_39-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Ackroyd"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"75"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201175-39" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 32;" id="mwwQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwwg">[32]</span></a></sup> The press soon began calling the event "The Great Stink";<sup about="#mwt57" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_40-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"71"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371-40" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 33;" id="mwww"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwxA">[33]</span></a></sup> the leading article in the <i id="mwxQ"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_Press_(London)" title="City Press (London)" id="mwxg">City Press</a></i> observed that "Gentility of speech is at an end—it stinks, and whoso once inhales the stink can never forget it and can count himself lucky if he lives to remember it".<sup about="#mwt61" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Times:_Simons_41-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Times: Simons"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times:_Simons-41" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 34;" id="mwxw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwyA">[34]</span></a></sup> A writer for <i id="mwyQ">The Standard</i> concurred with the opinion. One of its reporters described the river as a "pestiferous and typhus breeding abomination",<sup about="#mwt63" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Standard:_Purification_42-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Standard: Purification"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Standard:_Purification-42" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 35;" id="mwyg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwyw">[35]</span></a></sup> while a second wrote that "the amount of poisonous gases which is thrown off is proportionate to the increase of the sewage which is passed into the stream".<sup about="#mwt65" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Standard:_Poisonous_43-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Standard: Poisonous"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Standard:_Poisonous-43" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 36;" id="mwzA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwzQ">[36]</span></a></sup> The leading article in <i id="mwzg"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Illustrated_London_News" title="The Illustrated London News" id="mwzw">The Illustrated London News</a></i> commented that:</p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047036" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles mw:Transclusion" about="#mwt67" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"quote","href":"./Template:Quote"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"We can colonise the remotest ends of the earth; we can conquer India; we can pay the interest of the most enormous debt ever contracted; we can spread our name, and our fame, and our fructifying wealth to every part of the world; but we cannot clean the River Thames.&lt;ref name=\"ILN: Annually\" />"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mw0A">.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}</style><blockquote class="templatequote" about="#mwt67" id="mw0Q"><p>We can colonise the remotest ends of the earth; we can conquer India; we can pay the interest of the most enormous debt ever contracted; we can spread our name, and our fame, and our fructifying wealth to every part of the world; but we cannot clean the River Thames.<sup about="#mwt605" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-ILN:_Annually_44-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"ILN: Annually"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_Annually-44" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 37;" id="mw0g"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw0w">[37]</span></a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p id="mw1A">By June the stench from the river had become so bad that business in <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Palace_of_Westminster" title="Palace of Westminster" id="mw1Q">Parliament</a> was affected, and the curtains on the river side of the building were soaked in <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Calcium_hypochlorite" title="Calcium hypochlorite" id="mw1g">lime chloride</a> to overcome the smell. The measure was not successful, and discussions were held about possibly moving the business of government to <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Oxford" title="Oxford" id="mw1w">Oxford</a> or <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./St_Albans" title="St Albans" id="mw2A">St Albans</a>.<sup about="#mwt74" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Parl_&amp;_Thames_45-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Parl &amp; Thames"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Parl_&amp;_Thames-45" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 38;" id="mw2Q"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw2g">[38]</span></a></sup> <i id="mw2w"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Examiner_(1808–86)" title="The Examiner (1808–86)" id="mw3A" class="mw-redirect">The Examiner</a></i> reported that Disraeli, on attending one of the committee rooms, left shortly afterwards with the other members of the committee, "with a mass of papers in one hand, and with his pocket handkerchief applied to his nose" because the smell was so bad.<sup about="#mwt76" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Examiner:_handk_46-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Examiner: handk"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Examiner:_handk-46" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 39;" id="mw3Q"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw3g">[39]</span></a></sup> The disruption to its legislative work led to questions being raised in the House of Commons. According to <i id="mw3w"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hansard" title="Hansard" id="mw4A">Hansard</a></i>, the Member of Parliament (MP) John Brady informed Manners that members were unable to use either the Committee Rooms or the Library because of the stench, and asked the minister "if the noble Lord has taken any measures for mitigating the effluvium and discontinuing the nuisance". Manners replied that the Thames was not under his jurisdiction.<sup about="#mwt78" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Hansard:_Brady_Q_47-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Hansard: Brady Q"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hansard:_Brady_Q-47" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 40;" id="mw4Q"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw4g">[40]</span></a></sup> Four days later a second MP said to Manners that "By a perverse ingenuity, one of the noblest of rivers has been changed into a cesspool, and I wish to ask whether Her Majesty's Government intend to take any steps to remedy the evil?" Manners pointed out "that Her Majesty's Government have nothing whatever to do with the state of the Thames".<sup about="#mwt80" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Hansard:_Mangles_Q_48-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Hansard: Mangles Q"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hansard:_Mangles_Q-48" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 41;" id="mw4w"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw5A">[41]</span></a></sup> The satirical magazine <i id="mw5Q"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Punch_(magazine)" title="Punch (magazine)" id="mw5g">Punch</a></i> commented that "The one absorbing topic in both Houses of Parliament<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mw5w"> </span>... was the Conspiracy to Poison question. Of the guilt of that old offender, Father Thames, there was the most ample evidence".<sup about="#mwt82" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Punch:_essence_49-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Punch: essence"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Punch:_essence-49" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 42;" id="mw6A"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw6Q">[42]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mw6g">At the height of the stink, between <span about="#mwt86" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"200"},"2":{"wt":"–"},"3":{"wt":"250"},"4":{"wt":"LT"},"5":{"wt":"ST"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mw6w">200–250 long tons (220–280 short tons)</span> of lime were being used near the mouths of the sewers that discharged into the Thames, and men were employed spreading lime onto the Thames foreshore at low tide; the cost was £1,500 per week.<sup about="#mwt92" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-ILN:_Metro_50-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"ILN: Metro"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_Metro-50" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 43;" id="mw7A"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw7Q">[43]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt87" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-51" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"£1,500 in 1858 equates to approximately £130,000 in 2015, according to calculations based on [[Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)|Consumer Price Index]] measure of inflation.{{inflation-fn|UK}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-51" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 8;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mw7g"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw7w">[lower-alpha 8]</span></a></sup> On 15 June Disraeli tabled the Metropolis Local Management Amendment Bill, a proposed amendment to the 1855 Act; in the opening debate he called the Thames "a Stygian pool, reeking with ineffable and intolerable horrors".<sup about="#mwt94" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Hansard:_Dizzy_52-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Hansard: Dizzy"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hansard:_Dizzy-52" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 44;" id="mw8A"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw8Q">[44]</span></a></sup> The Bill put the responsibility to clear up the Thames on the MBW, and stated that "as far as may be possible" the sewerage outlets should not be within the boundaries of London; it also allowed the Board to borrow £3<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mw8g"> </span>million, which was to be repaid from a three-penny levy on all London households for the next forty years. The terms favoured Bazalgette's original 1856 plan, and overcame Hall's objection to it.<sup about="#mwt88" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201373–74_53-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"73–74"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201373–74-53" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 45;" id="mw8w"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw9A">[45]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt89" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201432_54-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"32"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201432-54" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 46;" id="mw9Q"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw9g">[46]</span></a></sup> The leading article in <i id="mw9w">The Times</i> observed that "Parliament was all but compelled to legislate upon the great London nuisance by the force of sheer stench".<sup about="#mwt96" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Times:_Leader_55-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Times: Leader"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times:_Leader-55" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 47;" id="mw-A"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw-Q">[47]</span></a></sup> The bill was debated in late July and was passed into law on 2 August.<sup about="#mwt90" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201374–75_56-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"74–75"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201374–75-56" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 48;" id="mw-g"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mw-w">[48]</span></a></sup></p>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="4" id="mw_A"><h2 id="Construction">Construction</h2>
<figure class="mw-default-size mw-halign-right" typeof="mw:Image/Thumb" id="mw_Q"><a href="./File:The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg" id="mw_g"><img resource="./File:The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg/220px-The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg" data-file-width="3720" data-file-height="2821" data-file-type="bitmap" height="167" width="220" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg/440px-The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg/330px-The_main_drainage_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0011720.jpg 1.5x" id="mw_w"/></a><figcaption id="mwAQA">Construction of the sewers in 1859, near <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Old_Ford" title="Old Ford" id="mwAQE">Old Ford</a>, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bow,_London" title="Bow, London" id="mwAQI">Bow</a> in East London</figcaption></figure>
<p id="mwAQM">Bazalgette's plans for the <span about="#mwt97" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"1,100"},"2":{"wt":"mi"},"3":{"wt":"km"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAQQ">1,100 miles (1,800</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt97"> </span><span about="#mwt97">km)</span> of additional street sewers (collecting both effluent and rainwater), which would feed into <span about="#mwt98" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"82"},"2":{"wt":"mi"},"3":{"wt":"km"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAQU">82 miles (132</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt98"> </span><span about="#mwt98">km)</span> of main interconnecting sewers, were put out to tender between 1859 and 1865. Four hundred draftsmen worked on the detailed plans and sectional views for the first phase of the building process.<sup about="#mwt99" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201425_57-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"25"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201425-57" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 49;" id="mwAQY"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAQc">[49]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt100" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208_58-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"208"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208-58" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 50;" id="mwAQg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAQk">[50]</span></a></sup> There were several engineering challenges to be overcome, particularly the fact that parts of London—including the area around <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Lambeth" title="Lambeth" id="mwAQo">Lambeth</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Pimlico" title="Pimlico" id="mwAQs">Pimlico</a>—lie below the high-water mark.<sup about="#mwt101" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201379_59-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"79"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201379-59" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 51;" id="mwAQw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAQ0">[51]</span></a></sup> Bazalgette's plan for the low-level areas was to lift the sewage from low-lying sewers at key points into the mid- and high-level sewers, which would then drain with the aid of gravity, out towards the eastern outfalls at a gradient of <span about="#mwt102" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"2"},"2":{"wt":"ft/mi"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAQ4">2 feet per mile (38</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt102"> </span><span about="#mwt102">cm/km)</span>.<sup about="#mwt103" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208_58-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"208"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208-58" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 50;" id="mwAQ8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwARA">[50]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt104" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347–48_60-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"De Maré"},"2":{"wt":"Doré"},"3":{"wt":"1973"},"pp":{"wt":"47–48"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347–48-60" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 52;" id="mwARE"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwARI">[52]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwARM">Bazalgette was a proponent of the use of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Portland_cement" title="Portland cement" id="mwARQ">Portland cement</a>, a material stronger than standard cement, but with a weakness when over-heated. To overcome the problem he instituted a quality control system to test batches of cement, that is described by the historian Stephen Halliday as both "elaborate" and "draconian". The results were fed back to the manufacturers, who altered their production processes to further improve the product. One of the cement manufacturers commented that the MBW were the first public body to use such testing processes.<sup about="#mwt106" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_&amp;_10_61-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"xiii &amp; 10"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_&amp;_10-61" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 53;" id="mwARU"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwARY">[53]</span></a></sup> The progress of Bazalgette's works was reported favourably in the press. Paul Dobraszczyk, the architectural historian, describes the coverage as presenting many of the workers "in a positive, even heroic, light",<sup about="#mwt107" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201434_62-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"34"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201434-62" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 54;" id="mwARc"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwARg">[54]</span></a></sup> and in 1861 <i id="mwARk"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Observer" title="The Observer" id="mwARo">The Observer</a></i> described the progress on the sewers as "the most expensive and wonderful work of modern times".<sup about="#mwt110" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Obs:_wonderful_63-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Obs: wonderful"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Obs:_wonderful-63" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 55;" id="mwARs"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwARw">[55]</span></a></sup> Construction costs were so high that in July 1863 an additional £1.2<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAR0"> </span>million was lent to the MBW to cover the cost of the work.<sup about="#mwt108" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEOwen198259_64-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Owen"},"2":{"wt":"1982"},"p":{"wt":"59"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198259-64" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 56;" id="mwAR4"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAR8">[56]</span></a></sup></p>
<section data-mw-section-id="5" id="mwASA"><h3 id="Southern_drainage_system">Southern drainage system</h3>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r889293853/mw-parser-output/.tmulti" about="#mwt111" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"multiple image\n&lt;!-- Essential parameters -->\n","href":"./Template:Multiple_image"},"params":{"align":{"wt":"left"},"direction":{"wt":"horizontal"},"header":{"wt":""},"width":{"wt":"&lt;!-- Image 1 -->"},"image1":{"wt":"Crossness Pumping Station, Belvedere, Kent - geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg"},"width1":{"wt":"{{#expr: (182 * 842 / 768) round 0}}"},"alt1":{"wt":""},"caption1":{"wt":"The octagon room at [[Crossness Pumping Station]], Belvedere, Kent\n&lt;!-- Image 2 -->"},"image2":{"wt":"The Prince of Wales opening the Metropolitan Main-drainage works at Crossness, ILN, 1865.JPG"},"width2":{"wt":"192"},"alt2":{"wt":""},"caption2":{"wt":"[[Edward VII|Edward, Prince of Wales]], opening the Crossness works, 1865"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwASE"/><div class="thumb tmulti tleft" about="#mwt111" id="mwASI"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:400px;max-width:400px"><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:Crossness_Pumping_Station,_Belvedere,_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg"><img alt="" resource="./File:Crossness_Pumping_Station,_Belvedere,_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Crossness_Pumping_Station%2C_Belvedere%2C_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg/200px-Crossness_Pumping_Station%2C_Belvedere%2C_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg" data-file-width="842" data-file-height="768" data-file-type="bitmap" height="182" width="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Crossness_Pumping_Station%2C_Belvedere%2C_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg/400px-Crossness_Pumping_Station%2C_Belvedere%2C_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Crossness_Pumping_Station%2C_Belvedere%2C_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg/300px-Crossness_Pumping_Station%2C_Belvedere%2C_Kent_-_geograph-2280114-by-Christine-Matthews.jpg 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption">The octagon room at <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Crossness_Pumping_Station" title="Crossness Pumping Station">Crossness Pumping Station</a>, Belvedere, Kent</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="width:194px;max-width:194px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness,_ILN,_1865.JPG"><img alt="" resource="./File:The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness,_ILN,_1865.JPG" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness%2C_ILN%2C_1865.JPG/192px-The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness%2C_ILN%2C_1865.JPG" data-file-width="1898" data-file-height="1793" data-file-type="bitmap" height="181" width="192" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness%2C_ILN%2C_1865.JPG/384px-The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness%2C_ILN%2C_1865.JPG 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness%2C_ILN%2C_1865.JPG/288px-The_Prince_of_Wales_opening_the_Metropolitan_Main-drainage_works_at_Crossness%2C_ILN%2C_1865.JPG 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Edward_VII" title="Edward VII">Edward, Prince of Wales</a>, opening the Crossness works, 1865</div></div></div></div></div>
<p id="mwASM">The southern system, across the less populated suburbs of London, was the smaller and easier part of the system to build. Three main sewers ran from <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Putney" title="Putney" id="mwASQ">Putney</a>, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Wandsworth" title="Wandsworth" id="mwASU">Wandsworth</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./South_Norwood" title="South Norwood" id="mwASY">Norwood</a> until they linked together in <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Deptford" title="Deptford" id="mwASc">Deptford</a>. At that point a pumping station lifted the effluent <span about="#mwt115" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"21"},"2":{"wt":"ft"},"3":{"wt":"m"},"4":{"wt":"1"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwASg">21 feet (6.4</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt115"> </span><span about="#mwt115">m)</span> into the main outflow sewer, which ran to the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Crossness_Pumping_Station" title="Crossness Pumping Station" id="mwASk">Crossness Pumping Station</a> on the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Erith_Marshes" title="Erith Marshes" id="mwASo">Erith Marshes</a>, where it was discharged into the Thames at high tide.<sup about="#mwt116" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201383–84_65-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"83–84"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201383–84-65" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 57;" id="mwASs"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwASw">[57]</span></a></sup> The newly built station at Crossness was designed by Bazalgette and a consultant engineer, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Charles_Henry_Driver" title="Charles Henry Driver" id="mwAS0" class="mw-redirect">Charles Henry Driver</a>, a proponent of the use of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Cast_iron" title="Cast iron" id="mwAS4">cast iron</a> as a building material.<sup about="#mwt117" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201444_66-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"44"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201444-66" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 58;" id="mwAS8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwATA">[58]</span></a></sup> The building was in a <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Romanesque_architecture" title="Romanesque architecture" id="mwATE">Romanesque style</a> and the interior contains architectural cast ironwork which <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./English_Heritage" title="English Heritage" id="mwATI">English Heritage</a> describe as important.<sup about="#mwt120" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-EH:_Grade_1_67-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"EH: Grade 1"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 59;" id="mwATM"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwATQ">[59]</span></a></sup> The power for pumping the large amount of sewage was provided by four massive beam engines, named Victoria, Prince Consort, Albert Edward and Alexandra, which were manufactured by <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./James_Watt" title="James Watt" id="mwATU">James Watt</a> and Co.<sup about="#mwt122" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-EH:_Grade_1_67-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"EH: Grade 1"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 59;" id="mwATY"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwATc">[59]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt124" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Crossness_Trust_68-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Crossness Trust"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Crossness_Trust-68" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 60;" id="mwATg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwATk">[60]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt118" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201398_69-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"98"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201398-69" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 61;" id="mwATo"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwATs">[61]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwATw">The station was opened in April 1865 by the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Prince_of_Wales" title="Prince of Wales" id="mwAT0">Prince of Wales</a>—the future King <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Edward_VII" title="Edward VII" id="mwAT4">Edward VII</a>—who officially started the engines.<sup about="#mwt125" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201397–98_70-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"97–98"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201397–98-70" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 62;" id="mwAT8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAUA">[62]</span></a></sup> The ceremony, which was attended by other members of royalty, MPs, the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Lord_Mayor_of_London" title="Lord Mayor of London" id="mwAUE">Lord Mayor of London</a> and the Archbishops of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Archbishop_of_Canterbury" title="Archbishop of Canterbury" id="mwAUI">Canterbury</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Archbishop_of_York" title="Archbishop of York" id="mwAUM">York</a>, was followed by a dinner for 500 within the building.<sup about="#mwt126" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPicard20059–10_71-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Picard"},"2":{"wt":"2005"},"pp":{"wt":"9–10"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard20059–10-71" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 63;" id="mwAUQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAUU">[63]</span></a></sup> The ceremony marked the completion of construction of the Southern Outfall Sewers, and the beginning of their operation.<sup about="#mwt127" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_72-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"xiii"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii-72" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 64;" id="mwAUY"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAUc">[64]</span></a></sup></p>
<figure class="mw-default-size" typeof="mw:Image/Thumb" id="mwAUg"><a href="./File:Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg" id="mwAUk"><img resource="./File:Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg/290px-Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg.png" data-file-width="2075" data-file-height="1424" data-file-type="drawing" height="199" width="290" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg/580px-Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg.png 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg/435px-Bazellgette_Sewer_Network_EN.svg.png 1.5x" id="mwAUo"/></a><figcaption id="mwAUs">Map of London showing the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_sewerage_system" title="London sewerage system" id="mwAUw">main, intercepting, storm relief and outfall sewers</a>. The route of Bazalgette's sewers is shown in heavy black.<sup about="#mwt128" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201380–81_73-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"80–81"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201380–81-73" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 65;" id="mwAU0"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAU4">[65]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt129" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198971_74-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Trench"},"2":{"wt":"Hillman"},"3":{"wt":"1989"},"p":{"wt":"71"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198971-74" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 66;" id="mwAU8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAVA">[66]</span></a></sup></figcaption></figure>
<p id="mwAVE">With the successful completion of the southern outflow, one of the board members of the MBW, an MP named Miller, proposed a bonus for Bazalgette. The board agreed and were prepared to pay the engineer £6,000—three times his annual salary—with an additional £4,000 to be shared among his three assistants. Although the idea was subsequently dropped following criticism, Halliday observes that the large amounts discussed "at a time when parsimony was the dominant characteristic of public expenditure is a firm indication of the depth of public interest and approval that appears to have characterised the work."<sup about="#mwt130" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201395–97_75-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"95–97"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201395–97-75" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 67;" id="mwAVI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAVM">[67]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt131" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-76" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"£6,000 in 1865 equates to £500,000 in 2015, according to calculations based on [[Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)|Consumer Price Index]] measure of inflation.{{inflation-fn|UK}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-76" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 9;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwAVQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAVU">[lower-alpha 9]</span></a></sup></p>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="6" id="mwAVY"><h3 id="Northern_drainage_system">Northern drainage system</h3>
<p id="mwAVc">The northern side of the Thames was the more populous, housing two-thirds of London's population, and the works had to proceed through congested streets and overcome such urban hurdles as canals, bridges and railway lines.<sup about="#mwt133" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209_77-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"209"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209-77" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 68;" id="mwAVg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAVk">[68]</span></a></sup> Work began on the system on 31 January 1859,<sup about="#mwt134" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-2" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mwAVo"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAVs">[18]</span></a></sup> but the builders encountered numerous problems in construction, including a labourers' strike in 1859–60, hard frosts in winter, and heavier than normal rainfall. The rain was so heavy in June 1862 that an accident occurred at the works re-building the Fleet sewer. The deep excavations were running parallel to the excavation of a cutting at <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Clerkenwell" title="Clerkenwell" id="mwAVw">Clerkenwell</a> for the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Railway" title="Metropolitan Railway" id="mwAV0">Metropolitan Railway</a> (now the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_line" title="Metropolitan line" id="mwAV4">Metropolitan line</a>), and the <span class="frac nowrap" about="#mwt135" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"8+1/2"},"2":{"wt":"ft"},"3":{"wt":"m"},"4":{"wt":"1"},"adj":{"wt":"on"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAV8">8<span class="visualhide"><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span></span><sup>1</sup><span typeof="mw:Entity">⁄</span><sub>2</sub></span><span about="#mwt135">-foot (2.6</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt135"> </span><span about="#mwt135">m)</span> wall dividing the two trenches collapsed, spilling the waters of the Fleet onto Victoria Street, damaging the gas and water mains.<sup about="#mwt136" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201427_78-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"27"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201427-78" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 69;" id="mwAWA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAWE">[69]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt138" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-ILN:_Burst_Fleet_79-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"ILN: Burst Fleet"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_Burst_Fleet-79" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 70;" id="mwAWI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAWM">[70]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwAWQ">The high-level sewer—the most northern of the works—ran from <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hampstead_Heath" title="Hampstead Heath" id="mwAWU">Hampstead Heath</a> to <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Stoke_Newington" title="Stoke Newington" id="mwAWY">Stoke Newington</a> and across <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Victoria_Park,_London" title="Victoria Park, London" id="mwAWc">Victoria Park</a>, where it joined with the eastern end of the mid-level sewer. The mid-level sewer began in the west at <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bayswater" title="Bayswater" id="mwAWg">Bayswater</a> and ran along <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Oxford_Street" title="Oxford Street" id="mwAWk">Oxford Street</a>, through <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Clerkenwell" title="Clerkenwell" id="mwAWo">Clerkenwell</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bethnal_Green" title="Bethnal Green" id="mwAWs">Bethnal Green</a>, before the connection. This combined main sewer ran to the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Abbey_Mills_Pumping_Station" title="Abbey Mills Pumping Station" id="mwAWw">Abbey Mills Pumping Station</a> in <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Stratford,_London" title="Stratford, London" id="mwAW0">Stratford</a>, where it was joined by the eastern end of the low-level sewer. The pumps at Abbey Mills lifted the effluent from the low-level sewer <span about="#mwt139" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"36"},"2":{"wt":"ft"},"3":{"wt":"m"},"4":{"wt":"0"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAW4">36 feet (11</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt139"> </span><span about="#mwt139">m)</span> into the main sewer. This main sewer ran <span about="#mwt140" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"5"},"2":{"wt":"mi"},"3":{"wt":"km"},"4":{"wt":"0"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAW8">5 miles (8</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt140"> </span><span about="#mwt140">km)</span>—along what is now known as the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Greenway,_London" title="Greenway, London" id="mwAXA" class="mw-redirect">Greenway</a>—to the outfall at <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Beckton" title="Beckton" id="mwAXE">Beckton</a>.<sup about="#mwt141" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966_21-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Trench"},"2":{"wt":"Hillman"},"3":{"wt":"1989"},"p":{"wt":"66"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966-21" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 17;" id="mwAXI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAXM">[17]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt142" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201381–82_80-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"81–82"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201381–82-80" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 71;" id="mwAXQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAXU">[71]</span></a></sup></p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r889293853/mw-parser-output/.tmulti" about="#mwt143" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"multiple image\n&lt;!-- Essential parameters -->\n","href":"./Template:Multiple_image"},"params":{"align":{"wt":"left"},"direction":{"wt":"horizontal"},"header":{"wt":""},"width":{"wt":"&lt;!-- Image 1 -->"},"image1":{"wt":"Embankment Construction of the Thames Embankment ILN 1865.jpg"},"width1":{"wt":"{{#expr: (150 * 600 / 417) round 0}}"},"alt1":{"wt":""},"caption1":{"wt":"[[Thames Embankment]] under construction in 1865\n&lt;!-- Image 2 -->"},"image2":{"wt":"Installation of the sewerage system of the Metropolis Wellcome M0010346.jpg"},"width2":{"wt":"210"},"alt2":{"wt":""},"caption2":{"wt":"A cross section of the Thames Embankment, showing the sewers running next to the river side"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAXY"/><div class="thumb tmulti tleft" about="#mwt143" id="mwAXc"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:434px;max-width:434px"><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:218px;max-width:218px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg"><img alt="" resource="./File:Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/01/Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg/216px-Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="417" data-file-type="bitmap" height="150" width="216" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/01/Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg/432px-Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/01/Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg/324px-Embankment_Construction_of_the_Thames_Embankment_ILN_1865.jpg 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Embankment" title="Thames Embankment">Thames Embankment</a> under construction in 1865</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="width:212px;max-width:212px"><div class="thumbimage"><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><a href="./File:Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg"><img alt="" resource="./File:Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg/210px-Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg" data-file-width="3950" data-file-height="2817" data-file-type="bitmap" height="150" width="210" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg/420px-Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg/315px-Installation_of_the_sewerage_system_of_the_Metropolis_Wellcome_M0010346.jpg 1.5x"/></a></figure-inline></div><div class="thumbcaption">A cross section of the Thames Embankment, showing the sewers running next to the river side</div></div></div></div></div>
<p id="mwAXg">Like the Crossness Pumping Station, Abbey Mills was a joint design by Bazalgette and Driver. Above the centre of the engine-house was an ornate dome that, Dobraszczyk considers, gives the building a "superficial resemblance<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAXk"> </span>... to a Byzantine church".<sup about="#mwt145" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk2006236_81-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2006"},"p":{"wt":"236"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk2006236-81" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 72;" id="mwAXo"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAXs">[72]</span></a></sup> The architectural historian <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Nikolaus_Pevsner" title="Nikolaus Pevsner" id="mwAXw">Nikolaus Pevsner</a>, in his <i id="mwAX0"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Pevsner_Architectural_Guides#Buildings_of_England" title="Pevsner Architectural Guides" id="mwAX4">Buildings of England</a></i>, thought the building showed "exciting architecture applied to the most foul purposes"; he went on to describe it as "an unorthodox mix, vaguely <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Italian_Gothic_architecture" title="Italian Gothic architecture" id="mwAX8">Italian Gothic</a> in style but with tiers of Byzantine windows and a central octagonal lantern that adds a gracious Russian flavour".<sup about="#mwt146" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECherryO'BrienPevsner2005229–30_82-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Cherry"},"2":{"wt":"O&apos;Brien"},"3":{"wt":"Pevsner"},"4":{"wt":"2005"},"pp":{"wt":"229–30"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTECherryO'BrienPevsner2005229–30-82" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 73;" id="mwAYA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAYE">[73]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwAYI">To provide the drainage for the low-level sewers, in February 1864 Bazalgette began building three embankments along the shores of the Thames. On the northern side he built the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Victoria_Embankment" title="Victoria Embankment" id="mwAYM">Victoria Embankment</a>, which runs from <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Westminster" title="Westminster" id="mwAYQ">Westminster</a> to <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Blackfriars_Bridge" title="Blackfriars Bridge" id="mwAYU">Blackfriars Bridge</a>, and the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Chelsea_Embankment" title="Chelsea Embankment" id="mwAYY">Chelsea Embankment</a>, running from <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Millbank" title="Millbank" id="mwAYc">Millbank</a> to the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Cadogan_Pier" title="Cadogan Pier" id="mwAYg">Cadogan Pier</a> at Chelsea. The southern side contains the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Albert_Embankment" title="Albert Embankment" id="mwAYk">Albert Embankment</a>, from the Lambeth end of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Westminster_Bridge" title="Westminster Bridge" id="mwAYo">Westminster Bridge</a> to <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Vauxhall" title="Vauxhall" id="mwAYs">Vauxhall</a>.<sup about="#mwt149" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878322_83-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Thornbury"},"2":{"wt":"1878"},"p":{"wt":"322"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878322-83" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 74;" id="mwAYw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAY0">[74]</span></a></sup> He ran the sewers along the banks of the Thames, building up walls on the foreshore, running the sewer pipes inside and infilling around them.<sup about="#mwt161" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Hudson,_Thames_84-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Hudson, Thames"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hudson,_Thames-84" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 75;" id="mwAY4"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAY8">[75]</span></a></sup> The works claimed over <span about="#mwt150" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"52"},"2":{"wt":"acre"},"3":{"wt":"ha"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAZA">52 acres (21</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt150"> </span><span about="#mwt150">ha)</span> of land from the Thames; the Victoria Embankment had the added benefit of relieving the congestion on the pre-existing roads between Westminster and the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_London" title="City of London" id="mwAZE">City of London</a>.<sup about="#mwt151" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209_77-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"209"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209-77" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 68;" id="mwAZI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAZM">[68]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt152" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPicard200527_85-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Picard"},"2":{"wt":"2005"},"p":{"wt":"27"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard200527-85" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 76;" id="mwAZQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAZU">[76]</span></a></sup> The cost of building the embankments was estimated at £1.71<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAZY"> </span>million, of which £450,000 was used for purchasing the necessary river-front properties, which tended to be for light industrial use.<sup about="#mwt153" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431_86-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"31"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431-86" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 77;" id="mwAZc"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAZg">[77]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt154" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878325–26_87-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Thornbury"},"2":{"wt":"1878"},"pp":{"wt":"325–26"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878325–26-87" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 78;" id="mwAZk"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAZo">[78]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt155" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-88" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"£1.71&amp;nbsp;million in 1859 equates to £149.5&amp;nbsp;million in 2015; £450,000 equates to a little over £39.3&amp;nbsp;million, according to calculations based on [[Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)|Consumer Price Index]] measure of inflation.{{inflation-fn|UK}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-88" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 10;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwAZs"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAZw">[lower-alpha 10]</span></a></sup> The Embankment project was seen as being nationally important and, with the Queen unable to attend because of illness, the Victoria Embankment was opened by the Prince of Wales in July 1870.<sup about="#mwt156" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013157–59_89-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"157–59"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013157–59-89" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 79;" id="mwAZ0"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAZ4">[79]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt157" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431_86-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"31"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431-86" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 77;" id="mwAZ8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAaA">[77]</span></a></sup> The Albert Embankment had been completed in November 1869, while the Chelsea Embankment was opened in July 1874.<sup about="#mwt158" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013155_&amp;_162_90-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"155 &amp; 162"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013155_&amp;_162-90" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 80;" id="mwAaE"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAaI">[80]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt159" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973209–10_91-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"De Maré"},"2":{"wt":"Doré"},"3":{"wt":"1973"},"pp":{"wt":"209–10"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973209–10-91" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 81;" id="mwAaM"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAaQ">[81]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwAaU">Bazalgette considered the Embankment project "one of the most difficult and intricate things the<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAaY"> </span>... [MBW] have had to do",<sup about="#mwt164" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-3" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mwAac"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAag">[18]</span></a></sup> and shortly after the Chelsea Embankment was opened, he was <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Knight_Bachelor" title="Knight Bachelor" id="mwAak">knighted</a>.<sup about="#mwt165" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013163_92-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"163"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013163-92" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 82;" id="mwAao"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAas">[82]</span></a></sup> In 1875 the work on the western drainage was completed, and the system became operational.<sup about="#mwt166" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-4" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mwAaw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAa0">[18]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt167" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973213_93-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"De Maré"},"2":{"wt":"Doré"},"3":{"wt":"1973"},"p":{"wt":"213"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973213-93" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 83;" id="mwAa4"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAa8">[83]</span></a></sup> The building work had required 318<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAbA"> </span>million bricks and <span about="#mwt168" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"880,000"},"2":{"wt":"cuyd"},"3":{"wt":"m3"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAbE">880,000 cubic yards (670,000</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt168"> </span><span about="#mwt168">m</span><sup about="#mwt168">3</sup><span about="#mwt168">)</span> of concrete and mortar; the final cost was approximately £6.5<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAbI"> </span>million.<sup about="#mwt169" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976_94-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Trench"},"2":{"wt":"Hillman"},"3":{"wt":"1989"},"p":{"wt":"76"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976-94" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 84;" id="mwAbM"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAbQ">[84]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt172" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Baz:_final_95-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Baz: final"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Baz:_final-95" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 85;" id="mwAbU"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAbY">[85]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt170" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-96" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"£6.5&amp;nbsp;million in 1875 equates to approximately £535&amp;nbsp;million in 2015, according to calculations based on [[Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)|Consumer Price Index]] measure of inflation.{{inflation-fn|UK}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-96" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 11;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwAbc"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAbg">[lower-alpha 11]</span></a></sup></p>
</section></section><section data-mw-section-id="7" id="mwAbk"><h2 id="Legacy">Legacy</h2>
<figure class="mw-default-size mw-halign-right" typeof="mw:Image/Thumb" id="mwAbo"><a href="./File:Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_(1819-1891)_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg" id="mwAbs"><img resource="./File:Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_(1819-1891)_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_%281819-1891%29_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg/220px-Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_%281819-1891%29_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg" data-file-width="3879" data-file-height="5337" data-file-type="bitmap" height="303" width="220" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_%281819-1891%29_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg/440px-Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_%281819-1891%29_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_%281819-1891%29_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg/330px-Portrait_of_Sir_Joseph_William_Bazalgette_%281819-1891%29_Wellcome_M0016460.jpg 1.5x" id="mwAbw"/></a><figcaption id="mwAb0">Bazalgette as the "Sewer Snake", <i id="mwAb4"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Punch_(magazine)" title="Punch (magazine)" id="mwAb8">Punch</a></i>, 1883<sup about="#mwt180" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Sewer_snake_97-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Sewer snake"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Sewer_snake-97" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 86;" id="mwAcA"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAcE">[86]</span></a></sup></figcaption></figure>
<p id="mwAcI">In 1866 there was a further cholera outbreak in London that claimed 5,596 lives, although it was confined to an area of the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./East_End_of_London" title="East End of London" id="mwAcM">East End</a> between <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Aldgate" title="Aldgate" id="mwAcQ">Aldgate</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bow,_London" title="Bow, London" id="mwAcU">Bow</a>.<sup about="#mwt182" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013124_98-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"124"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013124-98" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 87;" id="mwAcY"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAcc">[87]</span></a></sup> At the time that was a part of London which had not been connected to Bazalgette's system, and 93 per cent of the fatalities occurred within the area. The fault lay with the East London Water Company, who discharged their sewage half a mile (<span about="#mwt183" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"convert","href":"./Template:Convert"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"1/2"},"2":{"wt":"mi"},"3":{"wt":"m"},"4":{"wt":"-2"},"disp":{"wt":"out"},"abbr":{"wt":"on"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAcg">800</span><span typeof="mw:Entity" about="#mwt183"> </span><span about="#mwt183">m</span>) downstream from their reservoir: the sewage was being carried upstream into the reservoir on the incoming tide, contaminating the area's drinking water. The outbreak and the diagnosis of its causes led to the acceptance that cholera was water-borne, not transmitted by miasma. <i id="mwAck"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Lancet" title="The Lancet" id="mwAco">The Lancet</a></i>, relating details of the investigation into the incident by <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./William_Farr" title="William Farr" id="mwAcs">Dr William Farr</a>, stated that his report "will render irresistible the conclusions at which he has arrived in regard to the influence of the water-supply in causation of the epidemic." It was the last outbreak of the disease in the capital.<sup about="#mwt184" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013139–40_99-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"139–40"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013139–40-99" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 88;" id="mwAcw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAc0">[88]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwAc4">In 1878 a Thames pleasure-steamer, the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./SS_Princess_Alice_(1865)" title="SS Princess Alice (1865)" about="#mwt187" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"SS","href":"./Template:SS"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Princess Alice"},"2":{"wt":"1865"},"3":{"wt":"6"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAc8" class="mw-redirect">SS<span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><i>Princess Alice</i></a>, collided with the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Collier_(ship)" title="Collier (ship)" id="mwAdA">collier</a> <i id="mwAdE">Bywell Castle</i> and sank, causing over 650 deaths. The accident took place close to the outfalls and questions were raised in the British press over whether the sewage was responsible for some of the deaths.<sup about="#mwt188" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013103_100-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"103"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013103-100" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 89;" id="mwAdI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAdM">[89]</span></a></sup> In the 1880s further fears over possible health concerns because of the outfalls led to the MBW purifying sewage at Crossness and Beckton, rather than dumping the untreated waste into the river,<sup about="#mwt189" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201455_101-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"55"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201455-101" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 90;" id="mwAdQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAdU">[90]</span></a></sup> and a series of six sludge boats were ordered to ship effluent into the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./North_Sea" title="North Sea" id="mwAdY">North Sea</a> for dumping. The first boat commissioned in 1887 was named the SS <i id="mwAdc">Bazalgette</i>; the procedure remained in service until December 1998, when the dumping stopped and an incinerator was used to dispose of the waste.<sup about="#mwt194" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-LCC_report_102-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"LCC report"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-LCC_report-102" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 91;" id="mwAdg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAdk">[91]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt190" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013106–07_103-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"pp":{"wt":"106–07"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013106–07-103" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 92;" id="mwAdo"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAds">[92]</span></a></sup> The sewers were expanded in the late 19th century and again in the early 20th century.<sup about="#mwt191" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976_94-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Trench"},"2":{"wt":"Hillman"},"3":{"wt":"1989"},"p":{"wt":"76"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976-94" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 84;" id="mwAdw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAd0">[84]</span></a></sup> The drainage network is, <span about="#mwt192" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"As of","href":"./Template:As_of"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"2015"},"lc":{"wt":"y"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAd4">as of 2015</span><sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;" about="#mwt192"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Stink&amp;action=edit" class="external text"><span typeof="mw:Entity">[</span>update<span typeof="mw:Entity">]</span></a></sup><span typeof="mw:Nowiki" about="#mwt192"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:Articles_containing_potentially_dated_statements_from_2015" about="#mwt192"/><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:All_articles_containing_potentially_dated_statements" about="#mwt192" id="mwAd8"/>, managed by <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Water" title="Thames Water" id="mwAeA">Thames Water</a>, and is used by up to eight<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAeE"> </span>million people a day. The company said in 2014 that "the system is struggling to cope with the demands of 21st-century London".<sup about="#mwt196" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-TW:_stretched_104-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"TW: stretched"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-TW:_stretched-104" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 93;" id="mwAeI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAeM">[93]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwAeQ">Crossness Pumping Station remained in use until the mid-1950s when it was replaced. The engines were too large to remove and were left <i id="mwAeU">in situ</i>, although they fell into a state of disrepair. The station itself became a grade I <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Listed_building" title="Listed building" id="mwAeY">listed building</a> with the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Ministry_of_Works_(United_Kingdom)" title="Ministry of Works (United Kingdom)" id="mwAec">Ministry of Public Building and Works</a> in June 1970 (since replaced by English Heritage).<sup about="#mwt209" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-EH:_Grade_1_67-2" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"EH: Grade 1"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 59;" id="mwAeg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAek">[59]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt202" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-106" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"There are three types of listed status for buildings in England and Wales:&lt;br />\n* Grade I: buildings of exceptional interest.\n* Grade II*: particularly important buildings of more than special interest.\n* Grade II: buildings that are of special interest, warranting every effort to preserve them.&lt;ref name=\"EH: Grading\" />"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-106" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 12;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwAeo"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAes">[lower-alpha 12]</span></a></sup> The building and its engines are, <span about="#mwt203" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"As of","href":"./Template:As_of"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"2015"},"lc":{"wt":"y"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAew">as of 2015</span><sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;" about="#mwt203"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Stink&amp;action=edit" class="external text"><span typeof="mw:Entity">[</span>update<span typeof="mw:Entity">]</span></a></sup><span typeof="mw:Nowiki" about="#mwt203"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:Articles_containing_potentially_dated_statements_from_2015" about="#mwt203"/><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:All_articles_containing_potentially_dated_statements" about="#mwt203" id="mwAe0"/>, under restoration by the Crossness Engines Trust. The president of the trust is the British television producer <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peter_Bazalgette" title="Peter Bazalgette" id="mwAe4">Peter Bazalgette</a>, the great-great-grandson of Joseph.<sup about="#mwt204" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEmmerson200918_107-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Emmerson"},"2":{"wt":"2009"},"p":{"wt":"18"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEmmerson200918-107" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 95;" id="mwAe8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAfA">[95]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt211" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-BBC:_Smells_like_108-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"BBC: Smells like"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-BBC:_Smells_like-108" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 96;" id="mwAfE"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAfI">[96]</span></a></sup> <span about="#mwt205" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"As of","href":"./Template:As_of"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"2015"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAfM">As of 2015</span><sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;" about="#mwt205"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Stink&amp;action=edit" class="external text"><span typeof="mw:Entity">[</span>update<span typeof="mw:Entity">]</span></a></sup><span typeof="mw:Nowiki" about="#mwt205"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:Articles_containing_potentially_dated_statements_from_2015" about="#mwt205"/><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:All_articles_containing_potentially_dated_statements" about="#mwt205" id="mwAfQ"/> part of the Abbey Mill facility continues to operate as a sewage pumping station.<sup about="#mwt213" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-TW:_Abbey_Mills_109-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"TW: Abbey Mills"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-TW:_Abbey_Mills-109" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 97;" id="mwAfU"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAfY">[97]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt206" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201462_110-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"p":{"wt":"62"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201462-110" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 98;" id="mwAfc"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAfg">[98]</span></a></sup> The building's large double chimneys were removed during the Second World War following fears that they could be used by the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Luftwaffe" title="Luftwaffe" id="mwAfk">Luftwaffe</a> as landmarks for navigation,<sup about="#mwt207" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEClayton201073_111-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Clayton"},"2":{"wt":"2010"},"p":{"wt":"73"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEClayton201073-111" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 99;" id="mwAfo"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAfs">[99]</span></a></sup> and the building became a grade II* listed building with the Ministry of Works in November 1974.<sup about="#mwt215" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-EH:_Grade_II*_112-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"EH: Grade II*"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grade_II*-112" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 100;" id="mwAfw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAf0">[100]</span></a></sup></p>
<p id="mwAf4">The provision of an integrated and fully functioning sewer system for the capital, together with the associated drop in cholera cases, led the historian John Doxat to state that Bazalgette "probably did more good, and saved more lives, than any single Victorian official".<sup about="#mwt218" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday20133_113-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Halliday"},"2":{"wt":"2013"},"p":{"wt":"3"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20133-113" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 101;" id="mwAf8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAgA">[101]</span></a></sup> Bazalgette continued to work at the MBW until 1889, during which time he replaced three of London's bridges: <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Putney_Bridge" title="Putney Bridge" id="mwAgE">Putney</a> in 1886, <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hammersmith_Bridge" title="Hammersmith Bridge" id="mwAgI">Hammersmith</a> in 1887 and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Battersea_Bridge" title="Battersea Bridge" id="mwAgM">Battersea</a> in 1890. He was appointed president of the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Institution_of_Civil_Engineers" title="Institution of Civil Engineers" id="mwAgQ">Institution of Civil Engineers</a> (ICE) in 1884, and in 1901 a monument commemorating his life was opened on the Victoria Embankment.<sup about="#mwt219" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-5" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mwAgU"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAgY">[18]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt220" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9_6-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Dobraszczyk"},"2":{"wt":"2014"},"pp":{"wt":"8–9"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9-6" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 4;" id="mwAgc"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAgg">[4]</span></a></sup><sup about="#mwt221" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-115" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"efn","href":"./Template:Efn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"The inscription of the monument reads &apos;&apos;Flumini Vincula Posuit&apos;&apos; (He placed chains upon the river).{{sfn|Ackroyd|2008|p=208}}"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-115" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 13;" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" id="mwAgk"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAgo">[lower-alpha 13]</span></a></sup> When he died in March 1891, his obituarist in <i id="mwAgs">The Illustrated London News</i> wrote that Bazalgette's "two great titles to fame are that he beautified London and drained it",<sup about="#mwt225" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-ILN:_JB_death_116-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"ILN: JB death"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_JB_death-116" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 103;" id="mwAgw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAg0">[103]</span></a></sup> while <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Coode_(engineer)" title="John Coode (engineer)" id="mwAg4">Sir John Coode</a>, the president of ICE at the time, said that Bazalgette's work "will ever remain as monuments to his skill and professional ability".<sup about="#mwt222" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-6" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Smith"},"2":{"wt":"2004"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 18;" id="mwAg8"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAhA">[18]</span></a></sup> The obituarist for <i id="mwAhE">The Times</i> opined that "when the New Zealander comes to London a thousand years hence<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAhI"> </span>... the magnificent solidity and the faultless symmetry of the great granite blocks which form the wall of the Thames-embankment will still remain." He continued, "the great sewer that runs beneath Londoners<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAhM"> </span>... has added some 20 years to their chance of life".<sup about="#mwt227" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-Times_obit_117-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"Times obit"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times_obit-117" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 104;" id="mwAhQ"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAhU">[104]</span></a></sup> The historian <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peter_Ackroyd" title="Peter Ackroyd" id="mwAhY">Peter Ackroyd</a>, in his history of <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Subterranean_London" title="Subterranean London" id="mwAhc">subterranean London</a>, considers that "with <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Nash_(architect)" title="John Nash (architect)" id="mwAhg">[John] Nash</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Christopher_Wren" title="Christopher Wren" id="mwAhk">[Christopher] Wren</a>, Bazalgette enters the pantheon of London heroes" because of his work, particularly the building of the Victoria and Albert Embankments.<sup about="#mwt223" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201180_118-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Transclusion mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"sfn","href":"./Template:Sfn"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Ackroyd"},"2":{"wt":"2011"},"p":{"wt":"80"}},"i":0}}]}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201180-118" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 105;" id="mwAho"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAhs">[105]</span></a></sup></p>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="8" id="mwAhw"><h2 id="See_also">See also</h2>
<div role="navigation" aria-label="Portals" class="noprint portal plainlist tright" style="margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em;border:solid #aaa 1px" about="#mwt228" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"Portal","href":"./Template:Portal"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"Victorian era"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAh0">
<ul style="display:table;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0.1em;max-width:175px;background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold">
<li style="display:table-row"><span style="display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center"><figure-inline class="noviewer" typeof="mw:Image"><span><img alt="" resource="./File:Portal-puzzle.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/32px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png" data-file-width="32" data-file-height="28" data-file-type="drawing" height="28" width="32" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/64px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/48px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png 1.5x"/></span></figure-inline></span><span style="display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Portal:Victorian_era" title="Portal:Victorian era" class="mw-redirect">Victorian era portal</a></span></li></ul></div>
<ul id="mwAh4"><li id="mwAh8"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak" title="1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak" id="mwAiA">1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak</a></li></ul>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="9" id="mwAiE"><h2 id="Notes_and_references">Notes and references</h2>
<section data-mw-section-id="10" id="mwAiI"><h3 id="Notes">Notes</h3>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: lower-alpha;" about="#mwt229" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"notes","href":"./Template:Notes"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"30em"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAiM">
<ol class="mw-references references" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" typeof="mw:Extension/references" about="#mwt714" data-mw='{"name":"references","attrs":{"group":"lower-alpha","responsive":"0"},"body":{"html":""}}' id="mwAiQ"><li about="#cite_note-2" id="cite_note-2"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-2" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAiU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAiY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-2" class="mw-reference-text">The Fleet and Walbrook rivers, along with numerous others, still <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Subterranean_rivers_of_London" title="Subterranean rivers of London" id="mwAic">flow under modern-day London</a>.<sup about="#mwt487" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42_1-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTETalling201140 &amp; 42"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42-1"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42-1" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 1;" id="mwAig"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAik">[1]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-5" id="cite_note-5"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-5" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAio"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAis">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-5" class="mw-reference-text">The rise took place in the first half of the nineteenth century.<sup about="#mwt491" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147_4-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147-4"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147-4" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 3;" id="mwAiw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAi0">[3]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-18" id="cite_note-18"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-18" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAi4"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAi8">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-18" class="mw-reference-text">Chadwick—a barrister by training—was keen to improve sanitary conditions and public health; in 1842 he had published the <i id="mwAjA">Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain</i>, a best-selling publication. In 1843 he served on a royal commission on the health of towns, before service on a second royal commission in 1847, which resulted in the formation of the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Commission_of_Sewers" title="Metropolitan Commission of Sewers" id="mwAjE">Metropolitan Commission of Sewers</a>.<sup about="#mwt523" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMandler2004_17-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTEMandler2004"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEMandler2004-17"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMandler2004-17" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 15;" id="mwAjI"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAjM">[15]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-19" id="cite_note-19"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-19" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAjQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAjU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-19" class="mw-reference-text">The authority overseeing the works in the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_London" title="City of London" id="mwAjY">City of London</a> remained separate.<sup about="#mwt525" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415_16-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415-16"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415-16" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 14;" id="mwAjc"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAjg">[14]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-25" id="cite_note-25"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-25" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAjk"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAjo">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-25" class="mw-reference-text">Bazalgette had to apply for the position of chief engineer against eight others; his application for the role—which was successful—was supported by <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Robert_Stephenson" title="Robert Stephenson" id="mwAjs">Robert Stephenson</a>, MP, the co-designer of the <i id="mwAjw"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Stephenson's_Rocket" title="Stephenson's Rocket" id="mwAj0">Rocket</a></i> with his father; the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Millwright" title="Millwright" id="mwAj4">millwright</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Civil_engineering" title="Civil engineering" id="mwAj8">civil engineer</a> <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./William_Cubitt" title="William Cubitt" id="mwAkA">William Cubitt</a>, who had designed and built two of Britain's railways systems; and the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Mechanical_engineering" title="Mechanical engineering" id="mwAkE">mechanical</a> and civil engineer <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Isambard_Kingdom_Brunel" title="Isambard Kingdom Brunel" id="mwAkI">Isambard Kingdom Brunel</a>.<sup about="#mwt547" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310_24-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTEHalliday201310"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310-24"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310-24" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 20;" id="mwAkM"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAkQ">[20]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-30" id="cite_note-30"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-30" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAkU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAkY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-30" class="mw-reference-text">Hall, an imposingly tall man, oversaw the rebuilding of much of the <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Palace_of_Westminster" title="Palace of Westminster" id="mwAkc">Palace of Westminster</a>, including the parliamentary clock in <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./St_Stephen's_Tower" title="St Stephen's Tower" id="mwAkg" class="mw-redirect">St Stephen's Tower</a> (now named Elizabeth Tower); the principal bell of the tower—<a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Big_Ben" title="Big Ben" id="mwAkk">Big Ben</a>—was named after him.<sup about="#mwt555" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359_29-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTEHalliday201359"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359-29"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359-29" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 24;" id="mwAko"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAks">[24]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-33" id="cite_note-33"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-33" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAkw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAk0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-33" class="mw-reference-text">£5.4<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAk4"> </span>million in 1857 equates to a little over £450<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAk8"> </span>million in 2015; £2.4<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAlA"> </span>million equates to a little over £200<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAlE"> </span>million, according to calculations based on <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Consumer_Price_Index_(United_Kingdom)" title="Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)" id="mwAlI">Consumer Price Index</a> measure of inflation.<sup about="#mwt559" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"inflation-UK","group":""},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-inflation-UK-32"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-inflation-UK-32" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 26;" id="mwAlM"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAlQ">[26]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-51" id="cite_note-51"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-51" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAlU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAlY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-51" class="mw-reference-text">£1,500 in 1858 equates to approximately £130,000 in 2015, according to calculations based on <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Consumer_Price_Index_(United_Kingdom)" title="Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)" id="mwAlc">Consumer Price Index</a> measure of inflation.<sup about="#mwt573" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"inflation-UK","group":""},"body":{"html":"UK &lt;a rel=\"mw:WikiLink\" href=\"./Retail_Price_Index\" title=\"Retail Price Index\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"simple\",\"a\":{\"href\":\"./Retail_Price_Index\"},\"sa\":{\"href\":\"Retail Price Index\"}}&apos;>Retail Price Index&lt;/a> inflation figures are based on data from &lt;cite class=\"citation web\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>Clark, Gregory (2017). &lt;a rel=\"mw:ExtLink\" href=\"https://measuringworth.com/ukearncpi/\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">\"The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)\"&lt;/a>. &lt;i data-parsoid=\"{}\">MeasuringWorth&lt;/i>&lt;span class=\"reference-accessdate\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>. Retrieved &lt;span class=\"nowrap\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>27 January&lt;/span> 2019&lt;/span>.&lt;/cite>&lt;span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;amp;rft.jtitle=MeasuringWorth&amp;amp;rft.atitle=The+Annual+RPI+and+Average+Earnings+for+Britain%2C+1209+to+Present+%28New+Series%29&amp;amp;rft.date=2017&amp;amp;rft.aulast=Clark&amp;amp;rft.aufirst=Gregory&amp;amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmeasuringworth.com%2Fukearncpi%2F&amp;amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink\" class=\"Z3988\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>&lt;/span>&lt;style data-mw-deduplicate=\"TemplateStyles:r886058088\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/templatestyles\" about=\"#mwt484\" data-parsoid=\"{}\" data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"templatestyles\",\"attrs\":{\"src\":\"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css\"},\"body\":{\"extsrc\":\"\"}}&apos;>.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:\"\\\"\"\"\\\"\"\"&apos;\"\"&apos;\"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}&lt;/style>"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-inflation-UK-32" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 26;" id="mwAlg"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAlk">[26]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-76" id="cite_note-76"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-76" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAlo"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAls">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-76" class="mw-reference-text">£6,000 in 1865 equates to £500,000 in 2015, according to calculations based on <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Consumer_Price_Index_(United_Kingdom)" title="Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)" id="mwAlw">Consumer Price Index</a> measure of inflation.<sup about="#mwt410" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-2" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"inflation-UK","group":""},"body":{"html":"UK &lt;a rel=\"mw:WikiLink\" href=\"./Retail_Price_Index\" title=\"Retail Price Index\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"simple\",\"a\":{\"href\":\"./Retail_Price_Index\"},\"sa\":{\"href\":\"Retail Price Index\"}}&apos;>Retail Price Index&lt;/a> inflation figures are based on data from &lt;cite class=\"citation web\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>Clark, Gregory (2017). &lt;a rel=\"mw:ExtLink\" href=\"https://measuringworth.com/ukearncpi/\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">\"The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)\"&lt;/a>. &lt;i data-parsoid=\"{}\">MeasuringWorth&lt;/i>&lt;span class=\"reference-accessdate\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>. Retrieved &lt;span class=\"nowrap\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>27 January&lt;/span> 2019&lt;/span>.&lt;/cite>&lt;span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;amp;rft.jtitle=MeasuringWorth&amp;amp;rft.atitle=The+Annual+RPI+and+Average+Earnings+for+Britain%2C+1209+to+Present+%28New+Series%29&amp;amp;rft.date=2017&amp;amp;rft.aulast=Clark&amp;amp;rft.aufirst=Gregory&amp;amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmeasuringworth.com%2Fukearncpi%2F&amp;amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink\" class=\"Z3988\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>&lt;/span>&lt;style data-mw-deduplicate=\"TemplateStyles:r886058088\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/templatestyles\" about=\"#mwt404\" data-parsoid=\"{}\" data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"templatestyles\",\"attrs\":{\"src\":\"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css\"},\"body\":{\"extsrc\":\"\"}}&apos;>.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:\"\\\"\"\"\\\"\"\"&apos;\"\"&apos;\"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}&lt;/style>"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-inflation-UK-32" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 26;" id="mwAl0"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAl4">[26]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-88" id="cite_note-88"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-88" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAl8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAmA">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-88" class="mw-reference-text">£1.71<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAmE"> </span>million in 1859 equates to £149.5<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAmI"> </span>million in 2015; £450,000 equates to a little over £39.3<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAmM"> </span>million, according to calculations based on <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Consumer_Price_Index_(United_Kingdom)" title="Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)" id="mwAmQ">Consumer Price Index</a> measure of inflation.<sup about="#mwt406" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-3" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"inflation-UK","group":""},"body":{"html":"UK &lt;a rel=\"mw:WikiLink\" href=\"./Retail_Price_Index\" title=\"Retail Price Index\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"simple\",\"a\":{\"href\":\"./Retail_Price_Index\"},\"sa\":{\"href\":\"Retail Price Index\"}}&apos;>Retail Price Index&lt;/a> inflation figures are based on data from &lt;cite class=\"citation web\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>Clark, Gregory (2017). &lt;a rel=\"mw:ExtLink\" href=\"https://measuringworth.com/ukearncpi/\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">\"The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)\"&lt;/a>. &lt;i data-parsoid=\"{}\">MeasuringWorth&lt;/i>&lt;span class=\"reference-accessdate\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>. Retrieved &lt;span class=\"nowrap\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>27 January&lt;/span> 2019&lt;/span>.&lt;/cite>&lt;span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;amp;rft.jtitle=MeasuringWorth&amp;amp;rft.atitle=The+Annual+RPI+and+Average+Earnings+for+Britain%2C+1209+to+Present+%28New+Series%29&amp;amp;rft.date=2017&amp;amp;rft.aulast=Clark&amp;amp;rft.aufirst=Gregory&amp;amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmeasuringworth.com%2Fukearncpi%2F&amp;amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink\" class=\"Z3988\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>&lt;/span>&lt;style data-mw-deduplicate=\"TemplateStyles:r886058088\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/templatestyles\" about=\"#mwt400\" data-parsoid=\"{}\" data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"templatestyles\",\"attrs\":{\"src\":\"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css\"},\"body\":{\"extsrc\":\"\"}}&apos;>.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:\"\\\"\"\"\\\"\"\"&apos;\"\"&apos;\"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}&lt;/style>"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-inflation-UK-32" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 26;" id="mwAmU"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAmY">[26]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-96" id="cite_note-96"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-96" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAmc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAmg">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-96" class="mw-reference-text">£6.5<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAmk"> </span>million in 1875 equates to approximately £535<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAmo"> </span>million in 2015, according to calculations based on <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Consumer_Price_Index_(United_Kingdom)" title="Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)" id="mwAms">Consumer Price Index</a> measure of inflation.<sup about="#mwt408" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-4" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"inflation-UK","group":""},"body":{"html":"UK &lt;a rel=\"mw:WikiLink\" href=\"./Retail_Price_Index\" title=\"Retail Price Index\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"simple\",\"a\":{\"href\":\"./Retail_Price_Index\"},\"sa\":{\"href\":\"Retail Price Index\"}}&apos;>Retail Price Index&lt;/a> inflation figures are based on data from &lt;cite class=\"citation web\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>Clark, Gregory (2017). &lt;a rel=\"mw:ExtLink\" href=\"https://measuringworth.com/ukearncpi/\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">\"The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)\"&lt;/a>. &lt;i data-parsoid=\"{}\">MeasuringWorth&lt;/i>&lt;span class=\"reference-accessdate\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>. Retrieved &lt;span class=\"nowrap\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>27 January&lt;/span> 2019&lt;/span>.&lt;/cite>&lt;span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;amp;rft.jtitle=MeasuringWorth&amp;amp;rft.atitle=The+Annual+RPI+and+Average+Earnings+for+Britain%2C+1209+to+Present+%28New+Series%29&amp;amp;rft.date=2017&amp;amp;rft.aulast=Clark&amp;amp;rft.aufirst=Gregory&amp;amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmeasuringworth.com%2Fukearncpi%2F&amp;amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink\" class=\"Z3988\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"stx\":\"html\"}&apos;>&lt;/span>&lt;style data-mw-deduplicate=\"TemplateStyles:r886058088\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/templatestyles\" about=\"#mwt402\" data-parsoid=\"{}\" data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"templatestyles\",\"attrs\":{\"src\":\"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css\"},\"body\":{\"extsrc\":\"\"}}&apos;>.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:\"\\\"\"\"\\\"\"\"&apos;\"\"&apos;\"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(\"//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png\")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}&lt;/style>"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-inflation-UK-32" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 26;" id="mwAmw"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAm0">[26]</span></a></sup></span></li><li about="#cite_note-106" id="cite_note-106"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-106" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAm4"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAm8">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-106" class="mw-reference-text">There are three types of listed status for buildings in England and Wales:<br id="mwAnA"/>
<ul id="mwAnE"><li id="mwAnI">Grade I: buildings of exceptional interest.</li>
<li id="mwAnM">Grade II*: particularly important buildings of more than special interest.</li>
<li id="mwAnQ">Grade II: buildings that are of special interest, warranting every effort to preserve them.<sup about="#mwt745" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-EH:_Grading_105-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"EH: Grading"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grading-105" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 94;" id="mwAnU"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAnY">[94]</span></a></sup></li></ul></span></li><li about="#cite_note-115" id="cite_note-115"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-115" data-mw-group="lower-alpha" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAnc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAng">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-115" class="mw-reference-text">The inscription of the monument reads <i id="mwAnk">Flumini Vincula Posuit</i> (He placed chains upon the river).<sup about="#mwt734" class="mw-ref" id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208_114-0" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref" data-mw='{"name":"ref","attrs":{"name":"FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208"},"body":{"id":"mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208-114"}}'><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208-114" style="counter-reset: mw-Ref 102;" id="mwAno"><span class="mw-reflink-text" id="mwAns">[102]</span></a></sup></span></li></ol></div>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="11" id="mwAnw"><h3 id="References">References</h3>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em; list-style-type: decimal;" about="#mwt260" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"reflist","href":"./Template:Reflist"},"params":{"colwidth":{"wt":"25em"},"refs":{"wt":"&lt;ref name=\"LCC report\">\n{{cite web|title=Report of the Medical Officer of Health for London County Council 1925|url=https://wellcomelibrary.org/moh/report/b18252722/185#?c=0&amp;m=0&amp;s=0&amp;cv=185|website=Wellcome Library|accessdate=20 February 2019|page=182|date=1925}}&lt;/ref> \n\n&lt;ref name=\"EH: Grading\">\n{{cite web|url=http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/listed-buildings/|title=Listed Buildings|publisher=[[English Heritage]] |accessdate=25 February 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130105073151/http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/listed-buildings|archivedate=5 January 2013|df=dmy-all }}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"ILN: Metro\">\n{{cite news|title=Metropolitan News|work=[[The Illustrated London News]]|date=3 July 1858|pages=11}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"ILN: Annually\">\n{{cite news|title=Annually|work=[[The Illustrated London News]]|date=26 June 1858|pages=626–27}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Examiner: handk\">\n{{cite news|title=State and Church|work=[[The Examiner (1808–86)|The Examiner]]|date=3 July 1858|pp=423–24}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Times: Simons\">\n{{cite news|last1=Simons|first1=Paul|title=The big stench that saved London|work=The Times|date=17 June 2008|page=26}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Standard: Purification\">\n{{cite news|title=The Purification of the River Thames|work=The Standard|date=5 July 1858|page=2}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Standard: Poisonous\">\n{{cite news|title=The Poisonous Gases From Thames Water|work=The Standard|date=5 July 1858|page=2}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"ILN: Burst Fleet\">\n{{cite news|title=The Bursting of the Fleet Ditch|work=Illustrated London News|date=28 June 1862|page=648}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"TW: stretched\">\n{{cite web|title=London&apos;s Victorian sewer system|url=http://www.thameswater.co.uk/about-us/10092.htm|publisher=Thames Water|accessdate=18 February 2015|date=6 August 2014}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"TW: Abbey Mills\">\n{{cite web|title=Thames Water gives public a glimpse into the historical world of water|url=http://www.thameswater.co.uk/media/press-releases/15972.htm|publisher=Thames Water|accessdate=18 February 2015|date=21 August 2012}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Times obit\">\n{{cite news|title=Death of Sir Joseph Bazalgette|work=The Times|date=16 March 1891|page=4}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Sewer snake\">\n{{cite news|title=Sir Joseph Bazalgette, CB|work=Punch|date=1 December 1883|page=262}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"ILN: JB death\">\n{{cite news|title=Personal|work=The Illustrated London News|date=21 March 1891|page=370}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Baz: final\">\n{{cite web|title=Sir Joseph Bazalgette and London&apos;s Sewers|url=http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-london/sir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers|publisher=The History Channel|accessdate=17 February 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150218004321/http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-london/sir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers|archivedate=18 February 2015|df=dmy-all}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"BBC: Smells like\">\n{{cite news|title=Smells Like Thames Sewage|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/london/hi/people_and_places/history/newsid_8081000/8081713.stm|accessdate=17 February 2015|work=BBC.co.uk|date=5 June 2009}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Crossness Trust\">\n{{cite web|title=Crossness Pumping Station|url=http://www.crossness.org.uk/|website=The Crossness Engines Trust|accessdate=16 February 2015}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"EH: Grade 1\">\n{{NHLE|desc=Crossness Pumping Station|num=1064241|accessdate=15 February 2015}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"EH: Grade II*\">\n{{NHLE|desc=Abbey Mills Pumping Station|num=1190476|accessdate=25 February 2015}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Obs: wonderful\">\n{{cite news|title=The Metropolitan Great Drainage Works|work=The Observer|date=15 April 1861|location=London|pages=2}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Hudson, Thames\">\n{{cite web|last1=Hudson|first1=Roger|title=Taming the Thames|url=http://www.historytoday.com/roger-hudson/taming-thames|website=[[History Today]]|accessdate=13 February 2015|date=March 2012}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Standard: temps\">\n{{cite news|title=Health of London During the Week|work=[[London Evening Standard|London Standard]]|date=10 June 1858|page=2}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Hansard: Dizzy\">\n{{cite journal| title=First Reading|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jul/15/first-reading#S3V0151P0_18580715_HOC_123 |journal= [[Hansard]]|date= 15 June 1858|volume= 151 |pages= cols. 1508–40}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Parl &amp; Thames\">\n{{cite web|title=Parliament and the Thames|url=http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/parliamentary-archives/archives-highlights/archives-parliament-and-the-thames/|publisher=UK Parliament|accessdate=6 February 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141213114830/http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/parliamentary-archives/archives-highlights/archives-parliament-and-the-thames/|archivedate=13 December 2014|df=dmy-all}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Hansard: Brady Q\">\n{{cite journal| title=State of the Thames—Question|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jun/11/state-of-the-thames-question |journal= [[Hansard]]|date= 11 June 1858|volume= 150 |pages= col. 1921}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Hansard: Mangles Q\">\n{{cite journal| title=State of the Thames—Question|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jun/15/state-of-the-thames-question |journal= [[Hansard]]|date= 15 June 1858|volume= 150 |pages= cols. 2113–34 }}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Punch: essence\">\n{{cite journal|title=Punch&apos;s Essence of Parliament|journal=Punch|date=3 July 1858|page=3}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Times: Leader\">\n{{cite news|title=Leading article|work=The Times|date=18 June 1858|page=9}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"Times: Faraday\">\n{{cite news|last1=Faraday|first1=Michael|authorlink1=Michael Faraday|title=The State of the Thames|work=The Times|date=9 July 1855|page=8}}&lt;/ref>\n\n&lt;ref name=\"History: JB biog\">\n{{cite web|title=Joseph Bazalgette|url=http://www.history.co.uk/biographies/joseph-bazalgette|publisher=The History Channel|accessdate=3 February 2015}}&lt;/ref>"}},"i":0}}]}' id="mwAn0">
<ol class="mw-references references" typeof="mw:Extension/references" about="#mwt956" data-mw='{"name":"references","attrs":{"group":"","responsive":"0"},"body":{"html":"\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt815\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"LCC report\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=Report of the Medical Officer of Health for London County Council 1925|url=https://wellcomelibrary.org/moh/report/b18252722/185#?c=0&amp;amp;m=0&amp;amp;s=0&amp;amp;cv=185|website=Wellcome Library|accessdate=20 February 2019|page=182|date=1925}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"LCC report\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-LCC_report-102\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-LCC_report-102\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 91;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[91]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt817\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"EH: Grading\\\">\\n{{cite web|url=http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/listed-buildings/|title=Listed Buildings|publisher=[[English Heritage]] |accessdate=25 February 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130105073151/http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/listed-buildings|archivedate=5 January 2013|df=dmy-all }}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"EH: Grading\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-EH:_Grading-105\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grading-105\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 94;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[94]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt819\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"ILN: Metro\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Metropolitan News|work=[[The Illustrated London News]]|date=3 July 1858|pages=11}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"ILN: Metro\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_Metro-50\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_Metro-50\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 43;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[43]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt902\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"ILN: Annually\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Annually|work=[[The Illustrated London News]]|date=26 June 1858|pages=626–27}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"ILN: Annually\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_Annually-44\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_Annually-44\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 37;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[37]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt904\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Examiner: handk\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=State and Church|work=[[The Examiner (1808–86)|The Examiner]]|date=3 July 1858|pp=423–24}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Examiner: handk\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Examiner:_handk-46\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Examiner:_handk-46\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 39;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[39]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt906\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Times: Simons\\\">\\n{{cite news|last1=Simons|first1=Paul|title=The big stench that saved London|work=The Times|date=17 June 2008|page=26}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Times: Simons\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times:_Simons-41\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times:_Simons-41\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 34;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[34]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt908\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Standard: Purification\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=The Purification of the River Thames|work=The Standard|date=5 July 1858|page=2}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Standard: Purification\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Standard:_Purification-42\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Standard:_Purification-42\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 35;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[35]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt910\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Standard: Poisonous\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=The Poisonous Gases From Thames Water|work=The Standard|date=5 July 1858|page=2}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Standard: Poisonous\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Standard:_Poisonous-43\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Standard:_Poisonous-43\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 36;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[36]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt912\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"ILN: Burst Fleet\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=The Bursting of the Fleet Ditch|work=Illustrated London News|date=28 June 1862|page=648}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"ILN: Burst Fleet\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_Burst_Fleet-79\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_Burst_Fleet-79\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 70;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[70]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt914\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"TW: stretched\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=London&amp;apos;s Victorian sewer system|url=http://www.thameswater.co.uk/about-us/10092.htm|publisher=Thames Water|accessdate=18 February 2015|date=6 August 2014}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"TW: stretched\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-TW:_stretched-104\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-TW:_stretched-104\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 93;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[93]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt916\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"TW: Abbey Mills\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=Thames Water gives public a glimpse into the historical world of water|url=http://www.thameswater.co.uk/media/press-releases/15972.htm|publisher=Thames Water|accessdate=18 February 2015|date=21 August 2012}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"TW: Abbey Mills\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-TW:_Abbey_Mills-109\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-TW:_Abbey_Mills-109\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 97;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[97]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt918\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Times obit\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Death of Sir Joseph Bazalgette|work=The Times|date=16 March 1891|page=4}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Times obit\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times_obit-117\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times_obit-117\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 104;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[104]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt920\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Sewer snake\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Sir Joseph Bazalgette, CB|work=Punch|date=1 December 1883|page=262}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Sewer snake\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Sewer_snake-97\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Sewer_snake-97\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 86;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[86]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt922\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"ILN: JB death\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Personal|work=The Illustrated London News|date=21 March 1891|page=370}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"ILN: JB death\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_JB_death-116\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-ILN:_JB_death-116\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 103;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[103]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt924\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Baz: final\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=Sir Joseph Bazalgette and London&amp;apos;s Sewers|url=http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-london/sir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers|publisher=The History Channel|accessdate=17 February 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150218004321/http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-london/sir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers|archivedate=18 February 2015|df=dmy-all}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Baz: final\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Baz:_final-95\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Baz:_final-95\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 85;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[85]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt926\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"BBC: Smells like\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Smells Like Thames Sewage|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/london/hi/people_and_places/history/newsid_8081000/8081713.stm|accessdate=17 February 2015|work=BBC.co.uk|date=5 June 2009}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"BBC: Smells like\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-BBC:_Smells_like-108\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-BBC:_Smells_like-108\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 96;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[96]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt928\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Crossness Trust\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=Crossness Pumping Station|url=http://www.crossness.org.uk/|website=The Crossness Engines Trust|accessdate=16 February 2015}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Crossness Trust\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Crossness_Trust-68\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Crossness_Trust-68\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 60;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[60]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt930\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"EH: Grade 1\\\">\\n{{NHLE|desc=Crossness Pumping Station|num=1064241|accessdate=15 February 2015}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"EH: Grade 1\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 59;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[59]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt932\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"EH: Grade II*\\\">\\n{{NHLE|desc=Abbey Mills Pumping Station|num=1190476|accessdate=25 February 2015}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"EH: Grade II*\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-EH:_Grade_II*-112\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-EH:_Grade_II*-112\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 100;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[100]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt934\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Obs: wonderful\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=The Metropolitan Great Drainage Works|work=The Observer|date=15 April 1861|location=London|pages=2}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Obs: wonderful\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Obs:_wonderful-63\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Obs:_wonderful-63\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 55;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[55]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt936\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Hudson, Thames\\\">\\n{{cite web|last1=Hudson|first1=Roger|title=Taming the Thames|url=http://www.historytoday.com/roger-hudson/taming-thames|website=[[History Today]]|accessdate=13 February 2015|date=March 2012}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Hudson, Thames\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hudson,_Thames-84\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hudson,_Thames-84\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 75;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[75]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt938\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Standard: temps\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Health of London During the Week|work=[[London Evening Standard|London Standard]]|date=10 June 1858|page=2}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Standard: temps\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Standard:_temps-38\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Standard:_temps-38\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 31;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[31]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt940\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Hansard: Dizzy\\\">\\n{{cite journal| title=First Reading|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jul/15/first-reading#S3V0151P0_18580715_HOC_123 |journal= [[Hansard]]|date= 15 June 1858|volume= 151 |pages= cols. 1508–40}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Hansard: Dizzy\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hansard:_Dizzy-52\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hansard:_Dizzy-52\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 44;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[44]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt942\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Parl &amp;amp; Thames\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=Parliament and the Thames|url=http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/parliamentary-archives/archives-highlights/archives-parliament-and-the-thames/|publisher=UK Parliament|accessdate=6 February 2015|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141213114830/http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/parliamentary-archives/archives-highlights/archives-parliament-and-the-thames/|archivedate=13 December 2014|df=dmy-all}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Parl &amp;amp; Thames\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Parl_&amp;amp;_Thames-45\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Parl_&amp;amp;_Thames-45\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 38;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[38]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt944\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Hansard: Brady Q\\\">\\n{{cite journal| title=State of the Thames—Question|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jun/11/state-of-the-thames-question |journal= [[Hansard]]|date= 11 June 1858|volume= 150 |pages= col. 1921}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Hansard: Brady Q\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hansard:_Brady_Q-47\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hansard:_Brady_Q-47\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 40;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[40]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt946\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Hansard: Mangles Q\\\">\\n{{cite journal| title=State of the Thames—Question|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jun/15/state-of-the-thames-question |journal= [[Hansard]]|date= 15 June 1858|volume= 150 |pages= cols. 2113–34 }}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Hansard: Mangles Q\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hansard:_Mangles_Q-48\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Hansard:_Mangles_Q-48\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 41;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[41]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt948\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Punch: essence\\\">\\n{{cite journal|title=Punch&amp;apos;s Essence of Parliament|journal=Punch|date=3 July 1858|page=3}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Punch: essence\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Punch:_essence-49\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Punch:_essence-49\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 42;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[42]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt950\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Times: Leader\\\">\\n{{cite news|title=Leading article|work=The Times|date=18 June 1858|page=9}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Times: Leader\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times:_Leader-55\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times:_Leader-55\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 47;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[47]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt952\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"Times: Faraday\\\">\\n{{cite news|last1=Faraday|first1=Michael|authorlink1=Michael Faraday|title=The State of the Thames|work=The Times|date=9 July 1855|page=8}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"Times: Faraday\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times:_Faraday-8\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-Times:_Faraday-8\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 6;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[6]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n&lt;sup about=\"#mwt954\" class=\"mw-ref\" rel=\"dc:references\" typeof=\"mw:Extension/ref\" data-parsoid=&apos;{\"src\":\"&amp;lt;ref name=\\\"History: JB biog\\\">\\n{{cite web|title=Joseph Bazalgette|url=http://www.history.co.uk/biographies/joseph-bazalgette|publisher=The History Channel|accessdate=3 February 2015}}&amp;lt;/ref>\"}&apos; data-mw=&apos;{\"name\":\"ref\",\"attrs\":{\"name\":\"History: JB biog\"},\"body\":{\"id\":\"mw-reference-text-cite_note-History:_JB_biog-23\"}}&apos;>&lt;a href=\"./Great_Stink#cite_note-History:_JB_biog-23\" style=\"counter-reset: mw-Ref 19;\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">&lt;span class=\"mw-reflink-text\" data-parsoid=\"{}\">[19]&lt;/span>&lt;/a>&lt;/sup>\n"}}' id="mwAn4"><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42-1" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42-1"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42_1-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAn8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAoA">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTETalling201140_&amp;_42-1" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFTalling2011" id="mwAoE">Talling 2011</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAoI"> </span>40 &amp; 42.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201169–70-3" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201169–70-3"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201169–70_3-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAoM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAoQ">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201169–70-3" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFAckroyd2011" id="mwAoU">Ackroyd 2011</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAoY"> </span>69–70.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147-4" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147-4"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147_4-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAoc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAog">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20147-4" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwAok">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAoo"> </span>7.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9-6" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9-6"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAos"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9_6-0" id="mwAow"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAo0">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9_6-1" id="mwAo4"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAo8">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20148–9-6" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwApA">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwApE"> </span>8–9.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247-7" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247-7"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEOwen198247_7-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwApI"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwApM">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247-7" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFOwen1982" id="mwApQ">Owen 1982</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwApU"> </span>47.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Times:_Faraday-8" id="cite_note-Times:_Faraday-8"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Times:_Faraday_8-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwApY"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwApc">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times:_Faraday-8" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwApg"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Michael_Faraday" title="Michael Faraday" id="mwApk">Faraday, Michael</a> (9 July 1855). "The State of the Thames". <i id="mwApo">The Times</i>. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAps"> </span>8.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Times&amp;rft.atitle=The+State+of+the+Thames&amp;rft.pages=8&amp;rft.date=1855-07-09&amp;rft.aulast=Faraday&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwApw"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwAp0"/><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886058088" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" about="#mwt898" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwAp4">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224-9" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224-9"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAp8"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224_9-0" id="mwAqA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAqE">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224_9-1" id="mwAqI"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAqM">2 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224_9-2" id="mwAqQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAqU">3 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012224-9" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFFlanders2012" id="mwAqY">Flanders 2012</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAqc"> </span>224.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011248-10" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011248-10"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011248_10-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAqg"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAqk">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011248-10" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011" id="mwAqo">Hibbert et al. 2011</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAqs"> </span>248.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20011469-11" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20011469-11"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday20011469_11-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAqw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAq0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20011469-11" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2001" id="mwAq4">Halliday 2001</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAq8"> </span>1469.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20149-12" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20149-12"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20149_12-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwArA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwArE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk20149-12" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwArI">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwArM"> </span>9.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERyan200811-13" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTERyan200811-13"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERyan200811_13-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwArQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwArU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTERyan200811-13" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFRyan2008" id="mwArY">Ryan 2008</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwArc"> </span>11.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnow2004-14" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESnow2004-14"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwArg"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnow2004_14-0" id="mwArk"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAro">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnow2004_14-1" id="mwArs"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwArw">2 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnow2004_14-2" id="mwAr0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAr4">3 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTESnow2004-14" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFSnow2004" id="mwAr8">Snow 2004</a>.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEClayton201064-15" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEClayton201064-15"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEClayton201064_15-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAsA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAsE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEClayton201064-15" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFClayton2010" id="mwAsI">Clayton 2010</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAsM"> </span>64.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415-16" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415-16"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAsQ"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415_16-0" id="mwAsU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAsY">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415_16-1" id="mwAsc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAsg">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201415-16" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwAsk">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAso"> </span>15.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMandler2004-17" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMandler2004-17"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMandler2004_17-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAss"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAsw">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEMandler2004-17" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFMandler2004" id="mwAs0">Mandler 2004</a>.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247–48-20" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247–48-20"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEOwen198247–48_20-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAs4"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAs8">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198247–48-20" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFOwen1982" id="mwAtA">Owen 1982</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAtE"> </span>47–48.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966-21" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966-21"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAtI"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966_21-0" id="mwAtM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAtQ">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966_21-1" id="mwAtU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAtY">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198966-21" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFTrenchHillman1989" id="mwAtc">Trench <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAtg">&amp;</span> Hillman 1989</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAtk"> </span>66.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAto"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-0" id="mwAts"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAtw">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-1" id="mwAt0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAt4">2 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-2" id="mwAt8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAuA">3 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-3" id="mwAuE"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAuI">4 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-4" id="mwAuM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAuQ">5 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-5" id="mwAuU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAuY">6 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2004_22-6" id="mwAuc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAug">7 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2004-22" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFSmith2004" id="mwAuk">Smith 2004</a>.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-History:_JB_biog-23" id="cite_note-History:_JB_biog-23"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-History:_JB_biog_23-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAuo"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAus">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-History:_JB_biog-23" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwAuw"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.history.co.uk/biographies/joseph-bazalgette" class="external text" id="mwAu0">"Joseph Bazalgette"</a>. The History Channel<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwAu4">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwAu8">3 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Joseph+Bazalgette&amp;rft.pub=The+History+Channel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.history.co.uk%2Fbiographies%2Fjoseph-bazalgette&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwAvA"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt900" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwAvE"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310-24" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310-24"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310_24-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAvI"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAvM">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201310-24" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwAvQ">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAvU"> </span>10.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198972-26" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198972-26"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198972_26-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAvY"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAvc">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198972-26" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFTrenchHillman1989" id="mwAvg">Trench <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAvk">&amp;</span> Hillman 1989</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAvo"> </span>72.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201420–22-27" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201420–22-27"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201420–22_27-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAvs"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAvw">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201420–22-27" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwAv0">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAv4"> </span>20–22.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347-28" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347-28"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347_28-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAv8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAwA">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347-28" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDe_MaréDoré1973" id="mwAwE">De Maré <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAwI">&amp;</span> Doré 1973</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAwM"> </span>47.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359-29" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359-29"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359_29-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAwQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAwU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201359-29" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwAwY">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAwc"> </span>59.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201368–70-31" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201368–70-31"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201368–70_31-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAwg"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAwk">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201368–70-31" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwAwo">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAws"> </span>68–70.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-inflation-UK-32" id="cite_note-inflation-UK-32"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAww"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-0" id="mwAw0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAw4">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-1" id="mwAw8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAxA">2 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-2" id="mwAxE"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAxI">3 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-3" id="mwAxM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAxQ">4 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-inflation-UK_32-4" id="mwAxU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAxY">5 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-inflation-UK-32" class="mw-reference-text">UK <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Retail_Price_Index" title="Retail Price Index" id="mwAxc" class="mw-redirect">Retail Price Index</a> inflation figures are based on data from <cite class="citation web" id="mwAxg">Clark, Gregory (2017). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://measuringworth.com/ukearncpi/" class="external text" id="mwAxk">"The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)"</a>. <i id="mwAxo">MeasuringWorth</i><span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwAxs">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwAxw">27 January</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=MeasuringWorth&amp;rft.atitle=The+Annual+RPI+and+Average+Earnings+for+Britain%2C+1209+to+Present+%28New+Series%29&amp;rft.date=2017&amp;rft.aulast=Clark&amp;rft.aufirst=Gregory&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmeasuringworth.com%2Fukearncpi%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwAx0"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt482" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwAx4"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_&amp;_73-34" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_&amp;_73-34"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_&amp;_73_34-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAx8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAyA">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_&amp;_73-34" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwAyE">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAyI"> </span>71 &amp; 73.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012223–24-35" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012223–24-35"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012223–24_35-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAyM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAyQ">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEFlanders2012223–24-35" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFFlanders2012" id="mwAyU">Flanders 2012</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAyY"> </span>223–24.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDickens2011451-36" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDickens2011451-36"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDickens2011451_36-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAyc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAyg">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDickens2011451-36" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDickens2011" id="mwAyk">Dickens 2011</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAyo"> </span>451.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELewis2008243–44-37" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELewis2008243–44-37"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELewis2008243–44_37-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAys"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAyw">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTELewis2008243–44-37" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFLewis2008" id="mwAy0">Lewis 2008</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAy4"> </span>243–44.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Standard:_temps-38" id="cite_note-Standard:_temps-38"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Standard:_temps_38-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAy8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAzA">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Standard:_temps-38" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwAzE">"Health of London During the Week". <i id="mwAzI"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Evening_Standard" title="London Evening Standard" id="mwAzM" class="mw-redirect">London Standard</a></i>. 10 June 1858. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAzQ"> </span>2.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=London+Standard&amp;rft.atitle=Health+of+London+During+the+Week&amp;rft.pages=2&amp;rft.date=1858-06-10&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwAzU"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwAzY"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt884" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwAzc"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201175-39" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201175-39"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201175_39-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAzg"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAzk">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201175-39" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFAckroyd2011" id="mwAzo">Ackroyd 2011</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAzs"> </span>75.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371-40" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371-40"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371_40-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwAzw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwAz0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201371-40" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwAz4">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAz8"> </span>71.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Times:_Simons-41" id="cite_note-Times:_Simons-41"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Times:_Simons_41-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA0A"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA0E">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times:_Simons-41" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA0I">Simons, Paul (17 June 2008). "The big stench that saved London". <i id="mwA0M">The Times</i>. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA0Q"> </span>26.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Times&amp;rft.atitle=The+big+stench+that+saved+London&amp;rft.pages=26&amp;rft.date=2008-06-17&amp;rft.aulast=Simons&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA0U"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt852" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA0Y"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Standard:_Purification-42" id="cite_note-Standard:_Purification-42"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Standard:_Purification_42-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA0c"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA0g">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Standard:_Purification-42" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA0k">"The Purification of the River Thames". <i id="mwA0o">The Standard</i>. 5 July 1858. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA0s"> </span>2.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Standard&amp;rft.atitle=The+Purification+of+the+River+Thames&amp;rft.pages=2&amp;rft.date=1858-07-05&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA0w"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA00"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt854" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA04"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Standard:_Poisonous-43" id="cite_note-Standard:_Poisonous-43"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Standard:_Poisonous_43-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA08"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA1A">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Standard:_Poisonous-43" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA1E">"The Poisonous Gases From Thames Water". <i id="mwA1I">The Standard</i>. 5 July 1858. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA1M"> </span>2.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Standard&amp;rft.atitle=The+Poisonous+Gases+From+Thames+Water&amp;rft.pages=2&amp;rft.date=1858-07-05&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA1Q"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA1U"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt856" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA1Y"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-ILN:_Annually-44" id="cite_note-ILN:_Annually-44"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-ILN:_Annually_44-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA1c"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA1g">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_Annually-44" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA1k">"Annually". <i id="mwA1o"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Illustrated_London_News" title="The Illustrated London News" id="mwA1s">The Illustrated London News</a></i>. 26 June 1858. pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA1w"> </span>626–27.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Illustrated+London+News&amp;rft.atitle=Annually&amp;rft.pages=626-27&amp;rft.date=1858-06-26&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA10"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA14"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt848" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA18"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Parl_&amp;_Thames-45" id="cite_note-Parl_&amp;_Thames-45"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Parl_&amp;_Thames_45-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA2A"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA2E">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Parl_&amp;_Thames-45" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwA2I"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141213114830/http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/parliamentary-archives/archives-highlights/archives-parliament-and-the-thames/" class="external text" id="mwA2M">"Parliament and the Thames"</a>. UK Parliament. Archived from <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/parliamentary-archives/archives-highlights/archives-parliament-and-the-thames/" class="external text" id="mwA2Q">the original</a> on 13 December 2014<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwA2U">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwA2Y">6 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Parliament+and+the+Thames&amp;rft.pub=UK+Parliament&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.parliament.uk%2Fbusiness%2Fpublications%2Fparliamentary-archives%2Farchives-highlights%2Farchives-parliament-and-the-thames%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA2c"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt888" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA2g"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Examiner:_handk-46" id="cite_note-Examiner:_handk-46"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Examiner:_handk_46-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA2k"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA2o">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Examiner:_handk-46" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA2s">"State and Church". <i id="mwA2w"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Examiner_(1808–86)" title="The Examiner (1808–86)" id="mwA20" class="mw-redirect">The Examiner</a></i>. 3 July 1858. pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA24"> </span>423–24.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Examiner&amp;rft.atitle=State+and+Church&amp;rft.pages=423-24&amp;rft.date=1858-07-03&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA28"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA3A"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt850" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA3E"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Hansard:_Brady_Q-47" id="cite_note-Hansard:_Brady_Q-47"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Hansard:_Brady_Q_47-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA3I"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA3M">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hansard:_Brady_Q-47" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation journal" id="mwA3Q"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jun/11/state-of-the-thames-question" class="external text" id="mwA3U">"State of the Thames—Question"</a>. <i id="mwA3Y"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hansard" title="Hansard" id="mwA3c">Hansard</a></i>. <b id="mwA3g">150</b>: col. 1921. 11 June 1858.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Hansard&amp;rft.atitle=State+of+the+Thames%E2%80%94Question&amp;rft.volume=150&amp;rft.pages=col.+1921&amp;rft.date=1858-06-11&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhansard.millbanksystems.com%2Fcommons%2F1858%2Fjun%2F11%2Fstate-of-the-thames-question&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA3k"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA3o"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt890" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA3s"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Hansard:_Mangles_Q-48" id="cite_note-Hansard:_Mangles_Q-48"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Hansard:_Mangles_Q_48-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA3w"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA30">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hansard:_Mangles_Q-48" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation journal" id="mwA34"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jun/15/state-of-the-thames-question" class="external text" id="mwA38">"State of the Thames—Question"</a>. <i id="mwA4A"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hansard" title="Hansard" id="mwA4E">Hansard</a></i>. <b id="mwA4I">150</b>: cols. 2113–34. 15 June 1858.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Hansard&amp;rft.atitle=State+of+the+Thames%E2%80%94Question&amp;rft.volume=150&amp;rft.pages=cols.+2113-34&amp;rft.date=1858-06-15&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhansard.millbanksystems.com%2Fcommons%2F1858%2Fjun%2F15%2Fstate-of-the-thames-question&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA4M"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA4Q"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt892" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA4U"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Punch:_essence-49" id="cite_note-Punch:_essence-49"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Punch:_essence_49-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA4Y"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA4c">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Punch:_essence-49" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation journal" id="mwA4g">"Punch's Essence of Parliament". <i id="mwA4k">Punch</i>: 3. 3 July 1858.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Punch&amp;rft.atitle=Punch%27s+Essence+of+Parliament&amp;rft.pages=3&amp;rft.date=1858-07-03&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA4o"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA4s"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt894" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA4w"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-ILN:_Metro-50" id="cite_note-ILN:_Metro-50"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-ILN:_Metro_50-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA40"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA44">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_Metro-50" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA48">"Metropolitan News". <i id="mwA5A"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Illustrated_London_News" title="The Illustrated London News" id="mwA5E">The Illustrated London News</a></i>. 3 July 1858. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA5I"> </span>11.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Illustrated+London+News&amp;rft.atitle=Metropolitan+News&amp;rft.pages=11&amp;rft.date=1858-07-03&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA5M"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA5Q"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt813" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA5U"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Hansard:_Dizzy-52" id="cite_note-Hansard:_Dizzy-52"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Hansard:_Dizzy_52-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA5Y"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA5c">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hansard:_Dizzy-52" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation journal" id="mwA5g"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1858/jul/15/first-reading#S3V0151P0_18580715_HOC_123" class="external text" id="mwA5k">"First Reading"</a>. <i id="mwA5o"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hansard" title="Hansard" id="mwA5s">Hansard</a></i>. <b id="mwA5w">151</b>: cols. 1508–40. 15 June 1858.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Hansard&amp;rft.atitle=First+Reading&amp;rft.volume=151&amp;rft.pages=cols.+1508-40&amp;rft.date=1858-06-15&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhansard.millbanksystems.com%2Fcommons%2F1858%2Fjul%2F15%2Ffirst-reading%23S3V0151P0_18580715_HOC_123&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA50"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA54"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt886" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA58"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201373–74-53" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201373–74-53"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201373–74_53-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA6A"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA6E">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201373–74-53" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwA6I">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA6M"> </span>73–74.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201432-54" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201432-54"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201432_54-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA6Q"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA6U">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201432-54" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwA6Y">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA6c"> </span>32.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Times:_Leader-55" id="cite_note-Times:_Leader-55"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Times:_Leader_55-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA6g"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA6k">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times:_Leader-55" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA6o">"Leading article". <i id="mwA6s">The Times</i>. 18 June 1858. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA6w"> </span>9.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Times&amp;rft.atitle=Leading+article&amp;rft.pages=9&amp;rft.date=1858-06-18&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA60"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA64"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt896" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA68"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201374–75-56" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201374–75-56"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201374–75_56-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA7A"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA7E">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201374–75-56" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwA7I">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA7M"> </span>74–75.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201425-57" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201425-57"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201425_57-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA7Q"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA7U">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201425-57" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwA7Y">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA7c"> </span>25.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208-58" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208-58"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA7g"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208_58-0" id="mwA7k"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA7o">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208_58-1" id="mwA7s"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA7w">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011208-58" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2011" id="mwA70">Halliday 2011</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA74"> </span>208.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201379-59" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201379-59"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201379_59-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA78"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA8A">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201379-59" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwA8E">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA8I"> </span>79.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347–48-60" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347–48-60"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347–48_60-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA8M"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA8Q">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré197347–48-60" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDe_MaréDoré1973" id="mwA8U">De Maré <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA8Y">&amp;</span> Doré 1973</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA8c"> </span>47–48.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_&amp;_10-61" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_&amp;_10-61"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_&amp;_10_61-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA8g"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA8k">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_&amp;_10-61" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwA8o">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA8s"> </span>xiii &amp; 10.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201434-62" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201434-62"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201434_62-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA8w"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA80">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201434-62" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwA84">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA88"> </span>34.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Obs:_wonderful-63" id="cite_note-Obs:_wonderful-63"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Obs:_wonderful_63-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA9A"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA9E">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Obs:_wonderful-63" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwA9I">"The Metropolitan Great Drainage Works". <i id="mwA9M">The Observer</i>. London. 15 April 1861. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA9Q"> </span>2.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Observer&amp;rft.atitle=The+Metropolitan+Great+Drainage+Works&amp;rft.pages=2&amp;rft.date=1861-04-15&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA9U"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwA9Y"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt880" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA9c"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198259-64" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198259-64"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEOwen198259_64-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA9g"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA9k">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEOwen198259-64" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFOwen1982" id="mwA9o">Owen 1982</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA9s"> </span>59.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201383–84-65" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201383–84-65"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201383–84_65-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA9w"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA90">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201383–84-65" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwA94">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA98"> </span>83–84.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201444-66" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201444-66"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201444_66-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA-A"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA-E">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201444-66" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwA-I">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA-M"> </span>44.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67" id="cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA-Q"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-EH:_Grade_1_67-0" id="mwA-U"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA-Y">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-EH:_Grade_1_67-1" id="mwA-c"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA-g">2 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-EH:_Grade_1_67-2" id="mwA-k"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA-o">3 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-EH:_Grade_1-67" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite id="CITEREFHistoric_England1064241" class="citation web"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Historic_England" title="Historic England" id="mwA-s">Historic England</a>. <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://HistoricEngland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1064241" class="external text" id="mwA-w">"Crossness Pumping Station (1064241)"</a>. <i id="mwA-0"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./National_Heritage_List_for_England" title="National Heritage List for England" id="mwA-4">National Heritage List for England</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwA-8">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwA_A">15 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=National+Heritage+List+for+England&amp;rft.atitle=Crossness+Pumping+Station+%281064241%29&amp;rft.au=Historic+England&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2FHistoricEngland.org.uk%2Flisting%2Fthe-list%2Flist-entry%2F1064241&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA_E"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt876" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA_I"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Crossness_Trust-68" id="cite_note-Crossness_Trust-68"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Crossness_Trust_68-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA_M"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA_Q">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Crossness_Trust-68" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwA_U"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.crossness.org.uk/" class="external text" id="mwA_Y">"Crossness Pumping Station"</a>. <i id="mwA_c">The Crossness Engines Trust</i><span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwA_g">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwA_k">16 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Crossness+Engines+Trust&amp;rft.atitle=Crossness+Pumping+Station&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.crossness.org.uk%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwA_o"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt874" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwA_s"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201398-69" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201398-69"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201398_69-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwA_w"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwA_0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201398-69" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwA_4">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwA_8"> </span>98.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201397–98-70" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201397–98-70"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201397–98_70-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBAA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBAE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201397–98-70" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBAI">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBAM"> </span>97–98.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard20059–10-71" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard20059–10-71"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPicard20059–10_71-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBAQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBAU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard20059–10-71" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFPicard2005" id="mwBAY">Picard 2005</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBAc"> </span>9–10.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii-72" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii-72"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii_72-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBAg"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBAk">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013xiii-72" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBAo">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBAs"> </span>xiii.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201380–81-73" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201380–81-73"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201380–81_73-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBAw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBA0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201380–81-73" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBA4">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBA8"> </span>80–81.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198971-74" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198971-74"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198971_74-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBBA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBBE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198971-74" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFTrenchHillman1989" id="mwBBI">Trench <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBBM">&amp;</span> Hillman 1989</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBBQ"> </span>71.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201395–97-75" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201395–97-75"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201395–97_75-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBBU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBBY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201395–97-75" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBBc">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBBg"> </span>95–97.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209-77" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209-77"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBBk"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209_77-0" id="mwBBo"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBBs">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209_77-1" id="mwBBw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBB0">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2011209-77" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2011" id="mwBB4">Halliday 2011</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBB8"> </span>209.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201427-78" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201427-78"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201427_78-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBCA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBCE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201427-78" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwBCI">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBCM"> </span>27.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-ILN:_Burst_Fleet-79" id="cite_note-ILN:_Burst_Fleet-79"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-ILN:_Burst_Fleet_79-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBCQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBCU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_Burst_Fleet-79" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwBCY">"The Bursting of the Fleet Ditch". <i id="mwBCc">Illustrated London News</i>. 28 June 1862. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBCg"> </span>648.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Illustrated+London+News&amp;rft.atitle=The+Bursting+of+the+Fleet+Ditch&amp;rft.pages=648&amp;rft.date=1862-06-28&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBCk"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwBCo"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt858" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBCs"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201381–82-80" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201381–82-80"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday201381–82_80-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBCw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBC0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday201381–82-80" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBC4">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBC8"> </span>81–82.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk2006236-81" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk2006236-81"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk2006236_81-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBDA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBDE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk2006236-81" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2006" id="mwBDI">Dobraszczyk 2006</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBDM"> </span>236.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECherryO'BrienPevsner2005229–30-82" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECherryO'BrienPevsner2005229–30-82"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECherryO'BrienPevsner2005229–30_82-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBDQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBDU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTECherryO'BrienPevsner2005229–30-82" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFCherryO'BrienPevsner2005" id="mwBDY">Cherry, O'Brien <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBDc">&amp;</span> Pevsner 2005</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBDg"> </span>229–30.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878322-83" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878322-83"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878322_83-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBDk"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBDo">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878322-83" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFThornbury1878" id="mwBDs">Thornbury 1878</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBDw"> </span>322.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Hudson,_Thames-84" id="cite_note-Hudson,_Thames-84"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Hudson,_Thames_84-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBD0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBD4">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Hudson,_Thames-84" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwBD8">Hudson, Roger (March 2012). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.historytoday.com/roger-hudson/taming-thames" class="external text" id="mwBEA">"Taming the Thames"</a>. <i id="mwBEE"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_Today" title="History Today" id="mwBEI">History Today</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBEM">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBEQ">13 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=History+Today&amp;rft.atitle=Taming+the+Thames&amp;rft.date=2012-03&amp;rft.aulast=Hudson&amp;rft.aufirst=Roger&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.historytoday.com%2Froger-hudson%2Ftaming-thames&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBEU"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt882" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBEY"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard200527-85" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard200527-85"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPicard200527_85-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBEc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBEg">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEPicard200527-85" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFPicard2005" id="mwBEk">Picard 2005</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBEo"> </span>27.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431-86" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431-86"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBEs"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431_86-0" id="mwBEw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBE0">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431_86-1" id="mwBE4"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBE8">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201431-86" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwBFA">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBFE"> </span>31.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878325–26-87" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878325–26-87"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878325–26_87-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBFI"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBFM">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEThornbury1878325–26-87" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFThornbury1878" id="mwBFQ">Thornbury 1878</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBFU"> </span>325–26.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013157–59-89" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013157–59-89"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013157–59_89-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBFY"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBFc">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013157–59-89" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBFg">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBFk"> </span>157–59.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013155_&amp;_162-90" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013155_&amp;_162-90"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013155_&amp;_162_90-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBFo"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBFs">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013155_&amp;_162-90" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBFw">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBF0"> </span>155 &amp; 162.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973209–10-91" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973209–10-91"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973209–10_91-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBF4"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBF8">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973209–10-91" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDe_MaréDoré1973" id="mwBGA">De Maré <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBGE">&amp;</span> Doré 1973</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBGI"> </span>209–10.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013163-92" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013163-92"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013163_92-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBGM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBGQ">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013163-92" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBGU">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBGY"> </span>163.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973213-93" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973213-93"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973213_93-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBGc"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBGg">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDe_MaréDoré1973213-93" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDe_MaréDoré1973" id="mwBGk">De Maré <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBGo">&amp;</span> Doré 1973</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBGs"> </span>213.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976-94" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976-94"><span rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBGw"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976_94-0" id="mwBG0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBG4">1 </span></a><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976_94-1" id="mwBG8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBHA">2 </span></a></span> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTETrenchHillman198976-94" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFTrenchHillman1989" id="mwBHE">Trench <span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBHI">&amp;</span> Hillman 1989</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBHM"> </span>76.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-Baz:_final-95" id="cite_note-Baz:_final-95"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Baz:_final_95-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBHQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBHU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Baz:_final-95" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwBHY"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150218004321/http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-london/sir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers" class="external text" id="mwBHc">"Sir Joseph Bazalgette and London's Sewers"</a>. The History Channel. Archived from <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-london/sir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers" class="external text" id="mwBHg">the original</a> on 18 February 2015<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBHk">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBHo">17 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Sir+Joseph+Bazalgette+and+London%27s+Sewers&amp;rft.pub=The+History+Channel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.history.co.uk%2Fstudy-topics%2Fhistory-of-london%2Fsir-joseph-bazalgette-and-londons-sewers&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBHs"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt870" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBHw"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Sewer_snake-97" id="cite_note-Sewer_snake-97"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Sewer_snake_97-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBH0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBH4">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Sewer_snake-97" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwBH8">"Sir Joseph Bazalgette, CB". <i id="mwBIA">Punch</i>. 1 December 1883. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBIE"> </span>262.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Punch&amp;rft.atitle=Sir+Joseph+Bazalgette%2C+CB&amp;rft.pages=262&amp;rft.date=1883-12-01&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBII"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwBIM"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt866" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBIQ"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013124-98" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013124-98"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013124_98-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBIU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBIY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013124-98" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBIc">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBIg"> </span>124.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013139–40-99" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013139–40-99"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013139–40_99-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBIk"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBIo">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013139–40-99" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBIs">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBIw"> </span>139–40.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013103-100" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013103-100"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013103_100-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBI0"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBI4">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013103-100" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBI8">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBJA"> </span>103.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201455-101" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201455-101"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201455_101-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBJE"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBJI">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEDobraszczyk201455-101" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" id="mwBJM">Dobraszczyk 2014</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBJQ"> </span>55.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-LCC_report-102" id="cite_note-LCC_report-102"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-LCC_report_102-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBJU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBJY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-LCC_report-102" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwBJc"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://wellcomelibrary.org/moh/report/b18252722/185#?c=0&amp;m=0&amp;s=0&amp;cv=185" class="external text" id="mwBJg">"Report of the Medical Officer of Health for London County Council 1925"</a>. <i id="mwBJk">Wellcome Library</i>. 1925. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBJo"> </span>182<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBJs">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBJw">20 February</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Wellcome+Library&amp;rft.atitle=Report+of+the+Medical+Officer+of+Health+for+London+County+Council+1925&amp;rft.pages=182&amp;rft.date=1925&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwellcomelibrary.org%2Fmoh%2Freport%2Fb18252722%2F185%23%3Fc%3D0%26m%3D0%26s%3D0%26cv%3D185&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBJ0"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt809" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBJ4"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013106–07-103" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013106–07-103"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013106–07_103-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBJ8"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBKA">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday2013106–07-103" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBKE">Halliday 2013</a>, pp.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBKI"> </span>106–07.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-TW:_stretched-104" id="cite_note-TW:_stretched-104"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-TW:_stretched_104-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBKM"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBKQ">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-TW:_stretched-104" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwBKU"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.thameswater.co.uk/about-us/10092.htm" class="external text" id="mwBKY">"London's Victorian sewer system"</a>. Thames Water. 6 August 2014<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBKc">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBKg">18 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=London%27s+Victorian+sewer+system&amp;rft.pub=Thames+Water&amp;rft.date=2014-08-06&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thameswater.co.uk%2Fabout-us%2F10092.htm&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBKk"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt860" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBKo"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-EH:_Grading-105" id="cite_note-EH:_Grading-105"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-EH:_Grading_105-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBKs"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBKw">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-EH:_Grading-105" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation web" id="mwBK0"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130105073151/http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/listed-buildings" class="external text" id="mwBK4">"Listed Buildings"</a>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./English_Heritage" title="English Heritage" id="mwBK8">English Heritage</a>. Archived from <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/listed-buildings/" class="external text" id="mwBLA">the original</a> on 5 January 2013<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBLE">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBLI">25 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Listed+Buildings&amp;rft.pub=English+Heritage&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.english-heritage.org.uk%2Fcaring%2Flisting%2Flisted-buildings%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBLM"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt811" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBLQ"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEmmerson200918-107" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEEmmerson200918-107"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEmmerson200918_107-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBLU"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBLY">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEEmmerson200918-107" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFEmmerson2009" id="mwBLc">Emmerson 2009</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBLg"> </span>18.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-BBC:_Smells_like-108" id="cite_note-BBC:_Smells_like-108"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-BBC:_Smells_like_108-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBLk"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBLo">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-BBC:_Smells_like-108" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwBLs"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/london/hi/people_and_places/history/newsid_8081000/8081713.stm" class="external text" id="mwBLw">"Smells Like Thames Sewage"</a>. <i id="mwBL0">BBC.co.uk</i>. 5 June 2009<span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBL4">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBL8">17 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=BBC.co.uk&amp;rft.atitle=Smells+Like+Thames+Sewage&amp;rft.date=2009-06-05&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.bbc.co.uk%2Flocal%2Flondon%2Fhi%2Fpeople_and_places%2Fhistory%2Fnewsid_8081000%2F8081713.stm&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBMA"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt872" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBME"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-TW:_Abbey_Mills-109" id="cite_note-TW:_Abbey_Mills-109"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-TW:_Abbey_Mills_109-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBMI"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBMM">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-TW:_Abbey_Mills-109" class="mw-reference-text">
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<cite id="CITEREFHistoric_England1190476" class="citation web"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Historic_England" title="Historic England" id="mwBNQ">Historic England</a>. <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://HistoricEngland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1190476" class="external text" id="mwBNU">"Abbey Mills Pumping Station (1190476)"</a>. <i id="mwBNY"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./National_Heritage_List_for_England" title="National Heritage List for England" id="mwBNc">National Heritage List for England</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate" id="mwBNg">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap" id="mwBNk">25 February</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=National+Heritage+List+for+England&amp;rft.atitle=Abbey+Mills+Pumping+Station+%281190476%29&amp;rft.au=Historic+England&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2FHistoricEngland.org.uk%2Flisting%2Fthe-list%2Flist-entry%2F1190476&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBNo"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt878" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBNs"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20133-113" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20133-113"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHalliday20133_113-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBNw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBN0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEHalliday20133-113" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFHalliday2013" id="mwBN4">Halliday 2013</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBN8"> </span>3.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208-114" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208-114"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208_114-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBOA"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBOE">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd2008208-114" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFAckroyd2008" id="mwBOI">Ackroyd 2008</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBOM"> </span>208.</span></li><li about="#cite_note-ILN:_JB_death-116" id="cite_note-ILN:_JB_death-116"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-ILN:_JB_death_116-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBOQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBOU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-ILN:_JB_death-116" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwBOY">"Personal". <i id="mwBOc">The Illustrated London News</i>. 21 March 1891. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBOg"> </span>370.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Illustrated+London+News&amp;rft.atitle=Personal&amp;rft.pages=370&amp;rft.date=1891-03-21&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBOk"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwBOo"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt868" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBOs"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-Times_obit-117" id="cite_note-Times_obit-117"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-Times_obit_117-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBOw"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBO0">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-Times_obit-117" class="mw-reference-text">
<cite class="citation news" id="mwBO4">"Death of Sir Joseph Bazalgette". <i id="mwBO8">The Times</i>. 16 March 1891. p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBPA"> </span>4.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Times&amp;rft.atitle=Death+of+Sir+Joseph+Bazalgette&amp;rft.pages=4&amp;rft.date=1891-03-16&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988" id="mwBPE"></span><link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href="./Category:CS1:_Julian–Gregorian_uncertainty" id="mwBPI"/><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt864" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}' id="mwBPM"/></span></li><li about="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201180-118" id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201180-118"><a href="./Great_Stink#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201180_118-0" rel="mw:referencedBy" id="mwBPQ"><span class="mw-linkback-text" id="mwBPU">↑ </span></a> <span id="mw-reference-text-cite_note-FOOTNOTEAckroyd201180-118" class="mw-reference-text"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink#CITEREFAckroyd2011" id="mwBPY">Ackroyd 2011</a>, p.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwBPc"> </span>80.</span></li></ol></div>
</section><section data-mw-section-id="12" id="mwBPg"><h3 id="Sources">Sources</h3>
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<ul><li><cite id="CITEREFAckroyd2008" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peter_Ackroyd" title="Peter Ackroyd">Ackroyd, Peter</a> (2008). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=XYUDoICvjIEC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>Thames: Sacred River</i></a>. London: Vintage. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-09-942255-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-09-942255-6"><bdi>978-0-09-942255-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Thames%3A+Sacred+River&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Vintage&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-09-942255-6&amp;rft.aulast=Ackroyd&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DXYUDoICvjIEC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt665" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFAckroyd2011" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peter_Ackroyd" title="Peter Ackroyd">Ackroyd, Peter</a> (2011). <i>London Under</i>. London: Chatto &amp; Windus. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-7011-6991-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7011-6991-6"><bdi>978-0-7011-6991-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=London+Under&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Chatto+%26+Windus&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7011-6991-6&amp;rft.aulast=Ackroyd&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt667" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFCherryO'BrienPevsner2005" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bridget_Cherry" title="Bridget Cherry">Cherry, Bridget</a>; O'Brien, Charles; <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Nikolaus_Pevsner" title="Nikolaus Pevsner">Pevsner, Nikolaus</a> (2005). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=EW7k2KA4UkwC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>London: East</i></a>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-300-10701-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-300-10701-2"><bdi>978-0-300-10701-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=London%3A+East&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-300-10701-2&amp;rft.aulast=Cherry&amp;rft.aufirst=Bridget&amp;rft.au=O%27Brien%2C+Charles&amp;rft.au=Pevsner%2C+Nikolaus&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DEW7k2KA4UkwC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt669" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFClayton2010" class="citation book">Clayton, Antony (2010). <i>Subterranean City: Beneath the streets of London</i>. Whitstable, Kent: Historical Publications. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-1-9052-8632-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-9052-8632-4"><bdi>978-1-9052-8632-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Subterranean+City%3A+Beneath+the+streets+of+London&amp;rft.place=Whitstable%2C+Kent&amp;rft.pub=Historical+Publications&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-9052-8632-4&amp;rft.aulast=Clayton&amp;rft.aufirst=Antony&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt671" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFDe_MaréDoré1973" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Eric_de_Maré" title="Eric de Maré">De Maré, Eric</a>; <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Gustave_Doré" title="Gustave Doré">Doré, Gustave</a> (1973). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=vv_VAAAAMAAJ" class="external text"><i>Victorian London Revealed: Gustave Doré's Metropolis</i></a>. London: Penguin. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-1413-9084-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-1413-9084-0"><bdi>978-0-1413-9084-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Victorian+London+Revealed%3A+Gustave+Dor%C3%A9%27s+Metropolis&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Penguin&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-1413-9084-0&amp;rft.aulast=De+Mar%C3%A9&amp;rft.aufirst=Eric&amp;rft.au=Dor%C3%A9%2C+Gustave&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dvv_VAAAAMAAJ&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt673" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFDickens2011" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Charles_Dickens" title="Charles Dickens">Dickens, Charles</a> (2011). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=INkAes9Y5AYC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>Letters of Charles Dickens: 1833–1870</i></a>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-1-108-04004-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-108-04004-4"><bdi>978-1-108-04004-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Letters+of+Charles+Dickens%3A+1833%E2%80%931870&amp;rft.place=Cambridge&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-108-04004-4&amp;rft.aulast=Dickens&amp;rft.aufirst=Charles&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DINkAes9Y5AYC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt675" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFDobraszczyk2006" class="citation journal">Dobraszczyk, Paul (2006). "Historicizing Iron: Charles Driver and the Abbey Mills Pumping Station (1865–68)". <i>Architectural History</i>. <b>49</b>: 223–56. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//doi.org/10.1017%2FS0066622X0000277X" class="external text">10.1017/S0066622X0000277X</a>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/40033824" class="external text">40033824</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Architectural+History&amp;rft.atitle=Historicizing+Iron%3A+Charles+Driver+and+the+Abbey+Mills+Pumping+Station+%281865%E2%80%9368%29&amp;rft.volume=49&amp;rft.pages=223-56&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1017%2FS0066622X0000277X&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F40033824&amp;rft.aulast=Dobraszczyk&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt677" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFDobraszczyk2014" class="citation book">Dobraszczyk, Paul (2014). <i>London's Sewers</i>. Oxford: Shire Books. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-7478-1431-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7478-1431-3"><bdi>978-0-7478-1431-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=London%27s+Sewers&amp;rft.place=Oxford&amp;rft.pub=Shire+Books&amp;rft.date=2014&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7478-1431-3&amp;rft.aulast=Dobraszczyk&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt679" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFEmmerson2009" class="citation book">Emmerson, Andrew (2009). <i>Subterranean London</i>. Oxford: Shire Publications. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-7478-0740-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7478-0740-7"><bdi>978-0-7478-0740-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Subterranean+London&amp;rft.place=Oxford&amp;rft.pub=Shire+Publications&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7478-0740-7&amp;rft.aulast=Emmerson&amp;rft.aufirst=Andrew&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt681" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFFlanders2012" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Judith_Flanders" title="Judith Flanders">Flanders, Judith</a> (2012). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=47x4g7IqQlgC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>The Victorian City: Everyday Life in Dickens' London</i></a>. London: Atlantic Books. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-8578-9881-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8578-9881-4"><bdi>978-0-8578-9881-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Victorian+City%3A+Everyday+Life+in+Dickens%27+London&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Atlantic+Books&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8578-9881-4&amp;rft.aulast=Flanders&amp;rft.aufirst=Judith&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D47x4g7IqQlgC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt683" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHalliday2001" class="citation journal">Halliday, Stephen (22–29 December 2001). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1121911" class="external text">"Death and Miasma in Victorian London: An Obstinate Belief"</a>. <i><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./BMJ" title="BMJ" class="mw-redirect">BMJ</a></i>. <b>323</b> (7327): 1469–71. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//doi.org/10.1136%2Fbmj.323.7327.1469" class="external text">10.1136/bmj.323.7327.1469</a>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/25468628" class="external text">25468628</a>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1121911" class="external text">1121911</a></span>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11751359" class="external text">11751359</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=BMJ&amp;rft.atitle=Death+and+Miasma+in+Victorian+London%3A+An+Obstinate+Belief&amp;rft.volume=323&amp;rft.issue=7327&amp;rft.pages=1469-71&amp;rft.date=2001-12-22%2F2001-12-29&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC1121911&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F11751359&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F25468628&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1136%2Fbmj.323.7327.1469&amp;rft.aulast=Halliday&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC1121911&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt685" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHalliday2011" class="citation book">Halliday, Stephen (2011). <i>The Great Filth</i>. Stroud: History Press Limited. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-7524-6175-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7524-6175-5"><bdi>978-0-7524-6175-5</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Great+Filth&amp;rft.place=Stroud&amp;rft.pub=History+Press+Limited&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7524-6175-5&amp;rft.aulast=Halliday&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt687" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHalliday2013" class="citation book">Halliday, Stephen (2013). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=UKQ7AwAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis</i></a>. Stroud: History Press Limited. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-7509-2580-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7509-2580-8"><bdi>978-0-7509-2580-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Great+Stink+of+London%3A+Sir+Joseph+Bazalgette+and+the+Cleansing+of+the+Victorian+Metropolis&amp;rft.place=Stroud&amp;rft.pub=History+Press+Limited&amp;rft.date=2013&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7509-2580-8&amp;rft.aulast=Halliday&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DUKQ7AwAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt689" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHibbertWeinrebKeayKeay2011" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Christopher_Hibbert" title="Christopher Hibbert">Hibbert, Christopher</a>; <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Ben_Weinreb" title="Ben Weinreb">Weinreb, Ben</a>; <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Keay" title="John Keay">Keay, John</a>; Keay, Julia (2011). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=xa0D0PqiwfEC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>The London Encyclopaedia</i></a> (3rd ed.). London: Pan Macmillan. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-230-73878-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-230-73878-2"><bdi>978-0-230-73878-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+London+Encyclopaedia&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.edition=3rd&amp;rft.pub=Pan+Macmillan&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-230-73878-2&amp;rft.aulast=Hibbert&amp;rft.aufirst=Christopher&amp;rft.au=Weinreb%2C+Ben&amp;rft.au=Keay%2C+John&amp;rft.au=Keay%2C+Julia&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dxa0D0PqiwfEC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt691" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFLewis2008" class="citation book">Lewis, Jon E. (2008). <i>London: the Autobiography</i>. London: Constable &amp; Robinson. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-1-8452-9875-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-8452-9875-3"><bdi>978-1-8452-9875-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=London%3A+the+Autobiography&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Constable+%26+Robinson&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-8452-9875-3&amp;rft.aulast=Lewis&amp;rft.aufirst=Jon+E.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt693" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFMandler2004" class="citation journal"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peter_Mandler" title="Peter Mandler">Mandler, Peter</a> (2004). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/5013" class="external text">"Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1800–1890)"</a>. <i><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Oxford_Dictionary_of_National_Biography" title="Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" class="mw-redirect">Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</a></i>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//doi.org/10.1093%2Fref%3Aodnb%2F5013" class="external text">10.1093/ref:odnb/5013</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 January</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Oxford+Dictionary+of+National+Biography&amp;rft.atitle=Chadwick%2C+Sir+Edwin+%281800%E2%80%931890%29&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fref%3Aodnb%2F5013&amp;rft.aulast=Mandler&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oxforddnb.com%2Fview%2Farticle%2F5013&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt695" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size:90%; color:#555">(subscription or <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.oxforddnb.com/help/subscribe#public" class="external text">UK public library membership</a> required)</span></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFOwen1982" class="citation book">Owen, David Edward (1982). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=rDAXK578ohgC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>The Government of Victorian London, 1855–1889: The Metropolitan Board of Works, the Vestries, and the City Corporation</i></a>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-674-35885-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-674-35885-0"><bdi>978-0-674-35885-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Government+of+Victorian+London%2C+1855%E2%80%931889%3A+The+Metropolitan+Board+of+Works%2C+the+Vestries%2C+and+the+City+Corporation&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&amp;rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1982&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-674-35885-0&amp;rft.aulast=Owen&amp;rft.aufirst=David+Edward&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DrDAXK578ohgC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt697" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFPicard2005" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Liza_Picard" title="Liza Picard">Picard, Liza</a> (2005). <i>Victorian London: The Life of a City 1840–1870</i>. London: Weidenfeld &amp; Nicolson. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-2978-4733-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-2978-4733-5"><bdi>978-0-2978-4733-5</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Victorian+London%3A+The+Life+of+a+City+1840%E2%80%931870&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Weidenfeld+%26+Nicolson&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-2978-4733-5&amp;rft.aulast=Picard&amp;rft.aufirst=Liza&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt699" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFRyan2008" class="citation book">Ryan, Jeffrey R. (2008). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=t13C_eWhOX4C&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>Pandemic Influenza: Emergency Planning and Community Preparedness</i></a>. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-1-4200-6088-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4200-6088-1"><bdi>978-1-4200-6088-1</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Pandemic+Influenza%3A+Emergency+Planning+and+Community+Preparedness&amp;rft.place=Boca+Raton%2C+FL&amp;rft.pub=CRC+Press&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-4200-6088-1&amp;rft.aulast=Ryan&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeffrey+R.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dt13C_eWhOX4C%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt701" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFSmith2004" class="citation journal">Smith, Denis (2004). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/1787" class="external text">"Bazalgette, Sir Joseph William (1819–1891)"</a>. <i><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Oxford_Dictionary_of_National_Biography" title="Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" class="mw-redirect">Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</a></i>. <b>1</b>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//doi.org/10.1093%2Fref%3Aodnb%2F1787" class="external text">10.1093/ref:odnb/1787</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Oxford+Dictionary+of+National+Biography&amp;rft.atitle=Bazalgette%2C+Sir+Joseph+William+%281819%E2%80%931891%29&amp;rft.volume=1&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fref%3Aodnb%2F1787&amp;rft.aulast=Smith&amp;rft.aufirst=Denis&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oxforddnb.com%2Fview%2Farticle%2F1787&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt703" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size:90%; color:#555">(subscription or <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.oxforddnb.com/help/subscribe#public" class="external text">UK public library membership</a> required)</span></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFSnow2004" class="citation journal">Snow, Stephanie J. (2004). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/25979" class="external text">"Snow, John (1813–1858)"</a>. <i><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Oxford_Dictionary_of_National_Biography" title="Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" class="mw-redirect">Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</a></i>. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//doi.org/10.1093%2Fref%3Aodnb%2F25979" class="external text">10.1093/ref:odnb/25979</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 January</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Oxford+Dictionary+of+National+Biography&amp;rft.atitle=Snow%2C+John+%281813%E2%80%931858%29&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fref%3Aodnb%2F25979&amp;rft.aulast=Snow&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephanie+J.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oxforddnb.com%2Fview%2Farticle%2F25979&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt705" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size:90%; color:#555">(subscription or <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="http://www.oxforddnb.com/help/subscribe#public" class="external text">UK public library membership</a> required)</span></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFTalling2011" class="citation book">Talling, Paul (2011). <a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=PNe5ZBe53HYC&amp;pg=PP1" class="external text"><i>London's Lost Rivers</i></a>. London: Random House Books. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-1-84794-597-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-84794-597-6"><bdi>978-1-84794-597-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=London%27s+Lost+Rivers&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Random+House+Books&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-84794-597-6&amp;rft.aulast=Talling&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DPNe5ZBe53HYC%26pg%3DPP1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt707" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFThornbury1878" class="citation book"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./George_Walter_Thornbury" title="George Walter Thornbury">Thornbury, Walter</a> (1878). <i>Old and New London</i>. <b>3</b>. London: Cassell, Petter &amp; Galpin. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/174260850" class="external text">174260850</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Old+and+New+London&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Cassell%2C+Petter+%26+Galpin&amp;rft.date=1878&amp;rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F174260850&amp;rft.aulast=Thornbury&amp;rft.aufirst=Walter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt709" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFTrenchHillman1989" class="citation book">Trench, Richard; <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Ellis_Hillman" title="Ellis Hillman">Hillman, Ellis</a> (1989). <i>London Under London</i>. London: J. Murray. <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Special:BookSources/978-0-7195-4617-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7195-4617-4"><bdi>978-0-7195-4617-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=London+Under+London&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=J.+Murray&amp;rft.date=1989&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7195-4617-4&amp;rft.aulast=Trench&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard&amp;rft.au=Hillman%2C+Ellis&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGreat+Stink" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088" about="#mwt711" typeof="mw:Extension/templatestyles" data-mw='{"name":"templatestyles","attrs":{"src":"Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"},"body":{"extsrc":""}}'/></li></ul>
</div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="History_of_London" style="padding:3px" about="#mwt290" typeof="mw:Transclusion" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"London history","href":"./Template:London_history"},"params":{},"i":0}}]}' id="mwBPs"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Template:London_history" title="Template:London history"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Template_talk:London_history" title="Template talk:London history"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a rel="mw:ExtLink" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:London_history&amp;action=edit" class="external text"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="History_of_London" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_London" title="History of London">History of London</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Timeline_of_London" title="Timeline of London">Evolution</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Londinium" title="Londinium">Londinium</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Anglo-Saxon_London" title="Anglo-Saxon London">Lundenwic</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_London" title="City of London">City of London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_Westminster" title="City of Westminster">City of Westminster</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Middlesex" title="Middlesex">Middlesex</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./County_of_London" title="County of London">County of London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Greater_London" title="Greater London">Greater London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Timeline_of_London" title="Timeline of London">Timeline</a></li></ul>
</div></td><td class="navbox-image" rowspan="7" style="width:1px;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px"><div><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image"><span><img alt="" resource="./File:Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster,_London_-_May_2007_icon.png" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster%2C_London_-_May_2007_icon.png/90px-Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster%2C_London_-_May_2007_icon.png" data-file-width="250" data-file-height="427" data-file-type="bitmap" height="154" width="90" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster%2C_London_-_May_2007_icon.png/180px-Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster%2C_London_-_May_2007_icon.png 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster%2C_London_-_May_2007_icon.png/135px-Clock_Tower_-_Palace_of_Westminster%2C_London_-_May_2007_icon.png 1.5x"/></span></figure-inline></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Periods</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Londinium" title="Londinium">Roman London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Anglo-Saxon_London" title="Anglo-Saxon London">Anglo-Saxon London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Norman_and_Medieval_London" title="Norman and Medieval London">Norman and Medieval London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Tudor_London" title="Tudor London">Tudor London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Stuart_London" title="Stuart London">Stuart London</a></li></ul>
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./18th-century_London" title="18th-century London">18th-century London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./19th-century_London" title="19th-century London">19th-century London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_London_(1900–1939)" title="History of London (1900–1939)">1900–1939</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Blitz" title="The Blitz">The Blitz</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_London#1945–2000" title="History of London">1945–2000</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_London#21st_century" title="History of London">21st century</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Events</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Peasants'_Revolt" title="Peasants' Revolt">Peasants' Revolt</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Black_Death_in_England" title="Black Death in England">Black Death</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Plague_of_London" title="Great Plague of London">Great Plague</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Fire_of_London" title="Great Fire of London">Great Fire</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak" title="1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak">1854 cholera outbreak</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink" title="Great Stink">Great Stink</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./The_Great_Exhibition" title="The Great Exhibition" class="mw-redirect">Great Exhibition</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Franco-British_Exhibition_(1908)" title="Franco-British Exhibition (1908)">1908 Franco-British Exhibition</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Battle_of_Cable_Street" title="Battle of Cable Street">The Battle of Cable Street</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Festival_of_Britain" title="Festival of Britain">Festival of Britain</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Smog_of_London" title="Great Smog of London">Great Smog</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Coronation_of_Queen_Elizabeth_II" title="Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II" class="mw-redirect">Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Swinging_Sixties" title="Swinging Sixties">Swinging London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Plan" title="London Plan">London Plan</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1966_FIFA_World_Cup_Final" title="1966 FIFA World Cup Final">1966 FIFA World Cup Final</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hyde_Park_and_Regent's_Park_bombings" title="Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings">Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Funeral_of_Diana,_Princess_of_Wales" title="Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales">Funeral of Princess Diana</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./15_February_2003_anti-war_protests#London" title="15 February 2003 anti-war protests">Anti-war protests</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./7_July_2005_London_bombings" title="7 July 2005 London bombings">7/7 bombings</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Olympics" title="London Olympics">Olympic Games</a> (<a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1908_Summer_Olympics" title="1908 Summer Olympics">1908</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1948_Summer_Olympics" title="1948 Summer Olympics">1948</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./2012_Summer_Olympics" title="2012 Summer Olympics">2012</a>)</li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./2012_Summer_Paralympics" title="2012 Summer Paralympics">2012 Summer Paralympics</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Grenfell_Tower_fire" title="Grenfell Tower fire">Grenfell Tower fire</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_local_government_in_London" title="History of local government in London">Government</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Board_of_Works" title="Metropolitan Board of Works">Metropolitan Board of Works</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_County_Council" title="London County Council">London County Council</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Greater_London_Council" title="Greater London Council">Greater London Council</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Greater_London_Authority" title="Greater London Authority">Greater London Authority</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Assembly" title="London Assembly">London Assembly</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Mayor_of_London" title="Mayor of London">Mayor of London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_independence" title="London independence">London independence</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Services</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bow_Street_Runners" title="Bow Street Runners">Bow Street Runners</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_the_Metropolitan_Police_Service" title="History of the Metropolitan Police Service">Metropolitan Police Service</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Ambulance_Service" title="London Ambulance Service">London Ambulance Service</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Fire_Brigade" title="London Fire Brigade">London Fire Brigade</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Port_of_London_Authority" title="Port of London Authority">Port of London Authority</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_sewerage_system" title="London sewerage system">London sewerage system</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./History_of_the_London_Underground" title="History of the London Underground">London Underground</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Metropolitan_Archives" title="London Metropolitan Archives">London Metropolitan Archives</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_London" title="City of London">City of London</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_London_Corporation" title="City of London Corporation">City of London Corporation</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Lord_Mayor_of_London" title="Lord Mayor of London">Lord Mayor of the City of London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Wards_of_the_City_of_London" title="Wards of the City of London">Wards of the City of London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Guildhall,_London" title="Guildhall, London">Guildhall</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Livery_company" title="Livery company">Livery Companies</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Lord_Mayor's_Show" title="Lord Mayor's Show">Lord Mayor's Show</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./City_of_London_Police" title="City of London Police">City of London Police</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Bank_of_England" title="Bank of England">Bank of England</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Structures</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./St_Paul's_Cathedral" title="St Paul's Cathedral">St Paul's Cathedral</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Tower_of_London" title="Tower of London">Tower of London</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Palace_of_Whitehall" title="Palace of Whitehall">Palace of Whitehall</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Westminster_Hall" title="Westminster Hall" class="mw-redirect">Westminster Hall</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_Bridge" title="London Bridge">London Bridge</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Tower_Bridge" title="Tower Bridge">Tower Bridge</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Westminster_Abbey" title="Westminster Abbey">Westminster Abbey</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Big_Ben" title="Big Ben">Big Ben</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Monument_to_the_Great_Fire_of_London" title="Monument to the Great Fire of London">The Monument</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Fortifications_of_London" title="Fortifications of London">Fortifications</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="3"><div>
<ul><li><figure-inline typeof="mw:Image" data-mw='{"caption":"Category"}'><span><img resource="./File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" data-file-type="drawing" height="14" width="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x"/></span></figure-inline> <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Category:History_of_London" title="Category:History of London">Category</a></li></ul>
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<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Backhouse" title="John Backhouse">John Backhouse</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Joseph_Bazalgette" title="Joseph Bazalgette">Joseph Bazalgette</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Edmund_Colthurst" title="Edmund Colthurst">Edmund Colthurst</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Great_Stink" title="Great Stink">Great Stink</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_sewerage_system" title="London sewerage system">London sewerage system</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./London_water_supply_infrastructure" title="London water supply infrastructure">London water supply</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Board_of_Works" title="Metropolitan Board of Works">Metropolitan Board of Works</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Metropolitan_Water_Board_(London)" title="Metropolitan Water Board (London)" class="mw-redirect">Metropolitan Water Board</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Hugh_Myddelton" title="Hugh Myddelton">Hugh Myddelton</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./William_Chadwell_Mylne" title="William Chadwell Mylne">William Chadwell Mylne</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./New_River_Company" title="New River Company" class="mw-redirect">New River Company</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./New_River_(England)" title="New River (England)">New River</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./John_Snow_(physician)" title="John Snow (physician)" class="mw-redirect">John Snow (physician)</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak" title="1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak">1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./William_Webster_(builder)" title="William Webster (builder)">William Webster</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Major projects</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Water_Abingdon_Reservoir" title="Thames Water Abingdon Reservoir">Abingdon Reservoir</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Tideway_Scheme" title="Thames Tideway Scheme">Thames Tideway Scheme</a>, including <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Tideway_Scheme#Thames_Tideway_Tunnel_planning_and_consultation" title="Thames Tideway Scheme">Thames Tideway Tunnel</a> and <a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Lee_Tunnel" title="Lee Tunnel">Lee Tunnel</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Water_Desalination_Plant" title="Thames Water Desalination Plant">Thames Water Desalination Plant</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Thames_Water_Ring_Main" title="Thames Water Ring Main">Thames Water Ring Main</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Categories</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Category:Thames_Water" title="Category:Thames Water">Thames Water</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Category:Thames_Water_reservoirs" title="Category:Thames Water reservoirs">Reservoirs</a></li>
<li><a rel="mw:WikiLink" href="./Category:Former_water_company_predecessors_of_Thames_Water" title="Category:Former water company predecessors of Thames Water">Predecessor companies</a></li></ul>
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