I created a template called Template:Switzerland-river-stub and immediately saved a page with this template. The template showed up as a red link (even though the page of the template was loaded before I started saving my edit to the article). Null edits didn't help; however, a purge for the cache did help.
It was on English Wikipedia. I thought, though, that the job queue applies only for edits to the template saved after edits to the transclusing page; here I waited until the template was saved before saving the article.