Is it possible to make the list of protected pages accessible through the API depending on the community?
You can use action=query&list=allpages with apprtype= and apprlevel= to find the protected pages.
The timestamp, reason and user may not part of the api yet.
Something like https://en.wikipedia.org/w/api.php?action=query&generator=allpages&gapprtype=edit&prop=info&inprop=protection gets you the protection levels and expiry, you're just missing the timestamp, user, and reason. If that were to be added, it'd probably make most sense to add an inprop.