From the support desk:
My webhoster is Strato. I use putty for the ssh access.
Up to Mediawiki 1.30 it is no problem to run php-scripts like runJobs.php from the command line with ssh/putty. Starting with Mediawiki 1.31 I get the error message "This script must be run from the command line".
The user then identifies the changes made to fix T184043: MediaWiki should treat phpdbg as cli, reverts that, and his problem is resolved.