I use vagrant for all mediawiki and extension development. This is primarily because other environments i've tried do not setup families of language wikis along with commons which I need for CirrusSearch development.
I responded "I tried it but it never worked well", which is not exactly right. I know that different people have different needs and goals for a development environment and I don't mean to criticize Vagrant. I just prefer things to be lightweight and simple. I have a single systemd-nspawn container running all relevant services, which I administer directly. If I want to configure Apache, I just edit the Apache configuration files. That works for me.
If this is meant to compare to MediaWiki-Docker (distributed now with core), then I'd say I'm more inclined to use MediaWiki-Docker because it's more lightweight (using LXC instead of VirtualBox), and because it is probably easier to setup (my estimation) in popular cloud environments like AWS, Google Cloud Platform, Microsoft Azure. I ran into problems with MediaWiki-Vagrant back in 2015 when I first tried it in earnest on AWS (documented on my wiki at https://wiki.freephile.org/wiki/MediaWiki-Vagrant)
As a tangent to this discussion, I've actually been documenting the various automated deployments of MediaWiki if anyone wants a quick introduction / overview.
For reference, I believe that the only absolute blocker for me being able to use MediaWiki-Docker for development is T259685. There's some tracking on T261390 but the only other known issue was closed recently, so we're very near to it being viable...
(I spun up MediaWiki-Docker and got all the relevant extensions installed and configured today, just to verify, and that remains the stopping point.)