The article at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1729_(number) has an infobox on the side with a navigation row to jump between multiples of 1000. When I was trying to edit this article, I pressed the "Show preview" button in the source editor. This is what the preview looked like:
This page gives the exact same results in Special:ExpandTemplates. This indicates the problem is a wiki one, and not a VisualEditor one, the VE just happens to trigger it. I spent some time trying to figure out the template structure of this thing yesterday, but haven't yet finished my analysis. But since it is local issue, I think we can close this ticket as invalid.
Note, this is due to Template:For nowiki, used by Template:Infobox_number/range.. not sure why there is a transclusion difference, this whole thing uses some magic subs and nowiki incantations, that probably shouldn't be relied upon, for exactly this reason.