Wikibase currently only support item IDs that are a number prefixed with Q. Example: Q123. IDs in different formats, like 123-4X, are not supported.
This task is about adding support for custom item IDs on a code level. In other words, making it possible for third party Wikibase instances to work with their own ID format if they so desire. The current behavior (Q-IDs) could remain the default, requiring third parties to add configuration and code to switch their Wikibase to their own ID format.
I'm making this feature request on behalf of the German National Library (DNB). The DNB already had IDs for its data set (GND IDs). Using those existing IDs would simplify Wikibase adoption. This seems to be a common use case among institutions like the DNB.