I found that since my site upgraded to 1.36.0, all the external links are no longer with a external link icon beside them. Then I opened my devtools and found this:
A double slash instead of the expected single slash is in the url. I doubted with my local settings so I posted on the MediaWiki Discord but it seems fine:
Please notice that my $wgScriptPath is "". I found wmf hosted wikis are fine but their script path is with "w/".
Only external link icons, as well as ftp mailto etc. icons, are affected. Other images under resource is fine, e.g. the Powered by MediaWiki icon, the license icon.
For skins that overrides the links icon written in mediawiki.skinning.content.externallinks (e.g. Vector), the icons are still there. So probably it's not related to a single skin.