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Gerrit now automatically adds reviewers

Finding reviewers for a change is often a challenge, especially for a newcomer or folks proposing changes to projects they are not familiar with. Since January 16th, 2019, Gerrit automatically adds reviewers on your behalf based on who last changed the code you are affecting.

Antoine "@hashar" Musso exposes what lead us to enable that feature and how to configure it to fit your project. He will offers tip as to how to seek more reviewers based on years of experience.


When uploading a new patch, reviewers should be added automatically, that is the subject of the task T91190 opened almost four years ago (March 2015). I declined the task since we already have the Reviewer bot (see section below), @Tgr found a plugin for Gerrit which analyzes the code history with git blame and uses that to determine potential reviewers for a change. It took us a while to add that particular Gerrit plugin and the first version we installed was not compatible with our Gerrit version. The plugin was upgraded yesterday (Jan 16th) and is working fine (T101131).

Let's have a look at the functionality the plugin provides, and how it can be configured per repository. I will then offer a refresher of how one can search for reviewers based on git history.

Reviewers by blame plugin

The Gerrit plugin looks at affected code using git blame, it extracts the top three past authors which are then added as reviewers to the change on your behalf. Added reviewers will thus receive a notification showing you have asked them for code review.

The configuration is done on a per project basis and inherits from the parent project. Without any tweaks, your project inherits the configuration from All-Projects. If you are a project owner, you can adjust the configuration. As an example the configuration for operations/mediawiki-config which shows inherited values and an exception to not process a file named InitialiseSettings.php:

The three settings are described in the documentation for the plugin:

plugin.reviewers-by-blame.maxReviewers
The maximum number of reviewers that should be added to a change by this plugin.
By default 3.
plugin.reviewers-by-blame.ignoreFileRegEx
Ignore files where the filename matches the given regular expression when computing the reviewers. If empty or not set, no files are ignored.
By default not set.
plugin.reviewers-by-blame.ignoreSubjectRegEx
Ignore commits where the subject of the commit messages matches the given regular expression. If empty or not set, no commits are ignored.
By default not set.

By making past authors aware of a change to code they previously altered, I believe you will get more reviews and hopefully get your changes approved faster.

Previously we had other methods to add reviewers, one opt-in based and the others being cumbersome manual steps. They should be used to compliment the Gerrit reviewers by blame plugin, and I am giving an overview of each of them in the following sections.

Gerrit watchlist

The original system from Gerrit lets you watch projects, similar to a user watch list on MediaWiki. In Gerrit preferences, one can get notified for new changes, patchsets, comments... Simply indicate a repository, optionally a search query and you will receive email notifications for matching events.

The attached image is my watched projects configuration, I thus receive notifications for any changes made to the integration/config config as well as for changes in mediawiki/core which affect either composer.json or one of the Wikimedia deployment branches for that repo.

One drawback is that we can not watch a whole hierarchy of projects such as mediawiki and all its descendants, which would be helpful to watch our deployment branch. It is still useful when you are the primary maintainer of a repository since you can keep track of all activity for the repository.

Reviewer bot

The reviewer bot has been written by Merlijn van Deen (@valhallasw), it is similar to the Gerrit watched projects feature with some major benefits:

  • watcher is added as a reviewer, the author thus knows you were notified
  • it supports watching a hierarchy of projects (eg: mediawiki/*)
  • the file/branch filtering might be easier to gasp compared to Gerrit search queries
  • the watchers are stored at a central place which is public to anyone, making it easy to add others as reviewers.

One registers reviewers on a single wiki page: https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Git/Reviewers.

Each repository filter is a wikitext section (eg: === mediawiki/core ===) followed by a wikitext template and a file filter using using python fnmatch. Some examples:

Listen to any changes that touch i18n:

== Listen to repository groups ==
=== * ===
* {{Gerrit-reviewer|JohnDoe|file_regexp=<nowiki>i18n</nowiki>}}

Listen to MediaWiki core search related code:

=== mediawiki/core ===
* {{Gerrit-reviewer|JaneDoe|file_regexp=<nowiki>^includes/search/</nowiki>

The system works great, given maintainers remember to register on the page and that the files are not moved around. The bot is not that well known though and most repositories do not have any reviewers listed.

Inspecting git history

A source of reviewers is the git history, one can easily retrieve a list of past authors which should be good candidates to review code. I typically use git shortlog --summary --no-merges for that (--no-merges filters out merge commit crafted by Gerrit when a change is submitted). Example for MediaWiki Job queue system:

$ git shortlog --no-merges --summary --since "one year ago" includes/jobqueue/|sort -n|tail -n4
     3	Petr Pchelko
     4	Brad Jorsch
     4	Umherirrender
    16	Aaron Schulz

Which gives me four candidates that acted on that directory over a year.

Past reviewers from git notes

When a patch is merged, Gerrit records in git trace votes and the canonical URL of the change. They are available in git notes under /refs/notes/review, once notes are fetched, they can be show in git show or git log by passing --show-notes=review, for each commit, after the commit messages, the notes get displayed and show votes among other metadata:

$ git fetch refs/notes/review:refs/notes/review
$ git log --no-merges --show-notes=review -n1
commit e1d2c92ac69b6537866c742d8e9006f98d0e82e8
Author: Gergő Tisza <tgr.huwiki@gmail.com>
Date:   Wed Jan 16 18:14:52 2019 -0800

    Fix error reporting in MovePage
    
    Bug: T210739
    Change-Id: I8f6c9647ee949b33fd4daeae6aed6b94bb1988aa

Notes (review):
    Code-Review+2: Jforrester <jforrester@wikimedia.org>
    Verified+2: jenkins-bot
    Submitted-by: jenkins-bot
    Submitted-at: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 05:02:23 +0000
    Reviewed-on: https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/484825
    Project: mediawiki/core
    Branch: refs/heads/master

And I can then get the list of authors that previously voted Code-Review +2 for a given path. Using the previous example of includes/jobqueue/ over a year, the list is slightly different:

$ git log --show-notes=review --since "1 year ago" includes/jobqueue/|grep 'Code-Review+2:'|sort|uniq -c|sort -n|tail -n5
      2     Code-Review+2: Umherirrender <umherirrender_de.wp@web.de>
      3     Code-Review+2: Jforrester <jforrester@wikimedia.org>
      3     Code-Review+2: Mobrovac <mobrovac@wikimedia.org>
      9     Code-Review+2: Aaron Schulz <aschulz@wikimedia.org>
     18     Code-Review+2: Krinkle <krinklemail@gmail.com>

User Krinkle has approved a lot of patches, even if he doesn't show in the list of authors obtained by the previous mean (inspecting git history).

Conclusion

The Gerrit reviewers by blame plugin acts automatically which offers a good chance your newly uploaded patch will get reviewers added out of the box. For finer tweaking one should register as a reviewer on https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Git/Reviewers which benefits everyone. The last course of action is meant to compliment the git log history.

For any remarks, support, concerns, reach out on IRC freenode channel #wikimedia-releng or fill a task in Phabricator.

Thank you @thcipriani for the proof reading and english fixes.

Written by hashar on Jan 17 2019, 4:53 PM.
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Event Timeline

The Gerrit plugin blindly adds reviewers even when in a few cases it might not be appropriate (for a bot account, author of code who is not qualified to do a review, user that is no more active on a repository).

As such, the plugin will no more report by default. The configuration setting maxReviewers has been set to 0 in All-Projects.git(Gerrit #485184) which causes the plugin to early abort. The setting is inherited by all repositories

Project owners can still enable the setting for their repository by editing the project settings and setting maxReviewers to a positive integer.

The plugin has been removed in 485810.

Tgr added a comment.Feb 26 2019, 6:55 PM

The --show-notes=review stuff is a great tip. I kept coming back to this post, eventually I wrote this git command:

#!/bin/bash
if ! git rev-parse --verify refs/notes/review &>/dev/null; then
    echo 'fetching notes...';
    git fetch origin +refs/notes/review:refs/notes/review &> /dev/null
fi
git log --show-notes=review "$@" | grep 'Code-Review+2' | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn | tail -n10

(Name it e.g. git-log-cr, make it executable, put it somewhere in the path, call with git log-cr <log options>.)

Good hint @Tgr

Maybe one can somehow automatize the way to find reviewers but then let the users manually pick people that should actually be added as reviewer.

Anyway, the review notes are definitely helpful. I just went with two git aliases:

~/.gitconfig
[alias]
    fetchreview = fetch origin refs/notes/review:refs/notes/review
    codereview = log --show-notes=review