Today I noticed that the code added as part of https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/#/c/314474/ is breaking the update script on my dev wiki. Later, I noticed that SecurePoll has stopped working for me as well. In both cases, an INSERT or UPDATE query that was trying to add/modify data without specifying all columns was causing a MYSQL error 1364 (Field ... doesn't have a default value). Checking the DB schema showed those columns truly did not have a default value (examples are el_owner column of securepoll_elections table, or iw_api column of interwiki table).
I am using MW on a machine with MySQL using out-of-the-box settings. It appears that MySQL now uses STRICT_TRANS_TABLES mode by default. That means unless MW does something about it, strict mode will be enforced and all columns without default values must be specified in INSERT/UPDATE queries. That will break tons of code in MW core and MW extensions.
My assumption was that setting $wgSQLMode = '' in LocalSettings.php would fix that, but somehow it is not fixing the problem either.
The real bug we need to fix is "fix all bad SQL code"! But that is a huge undertaking. Until then, we should at least make sure MW disables strict mode for MySQL.