It has been noted (at great length) in T44138 that the "Publish changes" button that's shown when editing is slightly unclear and can be misleading since pressing it opens the dialogue to add an edit summary rather than immediately publishing changes. An ellipsis should be added to that button to indicate that it is not the final step. This solution is not perfect, and it does not fully resolve the problem described in T44138, but it is a small step in the right direction. This ellipsis will not be added to the edit summary dialogue, since that is the final step.
The button you're shown whilst editing will be changed to look like this:
This button in the edit summary dialogue will continue to look like this: