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[Spike, 1hrs] Evaluate approximate page size increase
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For a few pages, calculate the minimal and maximal HTML page size increases (in bytes) for adding linked data per T198946#4688022. gzipped size is required but uncompressed could also be provided.

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Niedzielski triaged this task as High priority.Nov 12 2018, 8:26 PM
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Jdlrobson renamed this task from Evaluate approximate page size increase to [Spike, 1hrs] Evaluate approximate page size increase.Nov 12 2018, 8:37 PM
Jdlrobson moved this task from Incoming to Needs Prioritization on the Readers-Web-Backlog board.
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@ovasileva pulling this task into the kanbanana since it blocks the launch.

On the high end, a long article name is used with a lengthy description and image URL on a stub article. The uncompressed size is 3306 B. The gzipped size is 2261 B. So about 2 KiB gzipped increase.

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On the low end, a short article name is used without description nor image on a lengthy article. The uncompressed size is 185555 B before and 186971 B after. The gzipped size is 38739 B before and 38972 B after. So about 200 bytes gzipped increase.

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">A</h1>     <div id="bodyContent" class="mw-body-content">
        <div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>       <div id="contentSub"></div>
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        <div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">This article is about the letter of the alphabet. For the English indefinite article, see <a href="/wiki/English_articles#Indefinite_article" title="English articles">English articles §&#160;Indefinite article</a>. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/A_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="A (disambiguation)">A (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable plainlinks selfreference noprint selfref">For <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Naming_conventions_(technical_restrictions)#Forbidden_characters" title="Wikipedia:Naming conventions (technical restrictions)">technical reasons</a>, "A#" redirects here. For A-sharp, see <a href="/wiki/A-sharp_(disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect mw-disambig" title="A-sharp (disambiguation)">A-sharp (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<table class="infobox" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;background:lightblue; color:black;;">A</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 4em; line-height: 1.2em; vertical-align: super; font-weight: normal;">A a</span></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center">(<a href="/wiki/A#Related_characters" title="A">See below</a>)</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/File:A_cursiva.gif" class="image" title="Writing cursive forms of A"><img alt="Writing cursive forms of A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/A_cursiva.gif/200px-A_cursiva.gif" width="200" height="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/A_cursiva.gif/300px-A_cursiva.gif 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/A_cursiva.gif/400px-A_cursiva.gif 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></a></td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background:lightblue; color:black; font-variant/style:&#32;;">Usage</th></tr><tr><th scope="row">Writing system</th><td><a href="/wiki/Latin_script" title="Latin script">Latin script</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Type</th><td><a href="/wiki/Alphabet" title="Alphabet">Alphabet</a> ic and <a href="/wiki/Logographic" class="mw-redirect" title="Logographic">Logographic</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Language of origin</th><td><a href="/wiki/Latin_language" class="mw-redirect" title="Latin language">Latin language</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Phonetic usage</th><td>[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Open front unrounded vowel">a</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">ɑ</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Open_back_rounded_vowel" title="Open back rounded vowel">ɒ</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Near-open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Near-open front unrounded vowel">æ</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Mid_central_vowel" title="Mid central vowel">ə</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Open-mid_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Open-mid front unrounded vowel">ɛ</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Close-mid_back_rounded_vowel" title="Close-mid back rounded vowel"></a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Open-mid_back_rounded_vowel" title="Open-mid back rounded vowel">ɔ</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Close-mid front unrounded vowel">e</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Voiced_pharyngeal_fricative" title="Voiced pharyngeal fricative">ʕ</a></span>]<br />[<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Open-mid_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open-mid back unrounded vowel">ʌ</a></span>]<br /><span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt"><a href="/wiki/Help:IPA/English" title="Help:IPA/English">/<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="/eɪ/: &#39;a&#39; in &#39;face&#39;"></span></span>/</a></span></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Unicode value</th><td><code>U+0041, U+0061</code></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Alphabetical position</th><td>1<br /><b>Numerical value:</b> 1</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background:lightblue; color:black; font-variant/style:&#32;;">History</th></tr><tr><th scope="row">Development</th><td><div style="font-size: 1.25em; font-weight: normal;"><table class="mw-hiero-table mw-hiero-outer" dir="ltr"><tbody><tr><td> <table class="mw-hiero-table"><tbody><tr> <td><img style="margin: 1px;" src="/w/extensions/wikihiero/img/hiero_F1.png?8f0ee" height="18" title="F1" alt="F1" /></td></tr></tbody></table> </td></tr></tbody></table><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/File:Proto-semiticA-01.svg" class="image" title="Proto-Sinaitic &#39;alp"><img alt="Proto-Sinaitic &#39;alp" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Proto-semiticA-01.svg/20px-Proto-semiticA-01.svg.png" width="20" height="20" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Proto-semiticA-01.svg/30px-Proto-semiticA-01.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Proto-semiticA-01.svg/40px-Proto-semiticA-01.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="64" data-file-height="64" /></a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/File:Cretan-1.jpg" class="image" title="Early Crete version of the letter &quot;A&quot;"><img alt="Early Crete version of the letter &quot;A&quot;" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cretan-1.jpg/20px-Cretan-1.jpg" width="20" height="20" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cretan-1.jpg/30px-Cretan-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cretan-1.jpg/40px-Cretan-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="408" data-file-height="415" /></a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/File:Protoalef.svg" class="image" title="Proto-Caanite Aleph"><img alt="Proto-Caanite Aleph" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Protoalef.svg/20px-Protoalef.svg.png" width="20" height="20" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Protoalef.svg/30px-Protoalef.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Protoalef.svg/40px-Protoalef.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="625" data-file-height="625" /></a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/File:Phoenician_aleph.svg" class="image" title="Phoenician Aleph"><img alt="Phoenician Aleph" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Phoenician_aleph.svg/20px-Phoenician_aleph.svg.png" width="20" height="20" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Phoenician_aleph.svg/30px-Phoenician_aleph.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Phoenician_aleph.svg/40px-Phoenician_aleph.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="85" data-file-height="85" /></a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/Alpha" title="Alpha">Α α</a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/%F0%90%8C%80" class="mw-redirect" title="𐌀">𐌀</a><a href="/wiki/File:Greek-uncial-1.jpg" class="image" title="Greek Classical uncial"><img alt="Greek Classical uncial" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Greek-uncial-1.jpg/20px-Greek-uncial-1.jpg" width="20" height="21" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Greek-uncial-1.jpg/30px-Greek-uncial-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Greek-uncial-1.jpg/40px-Greek-uncial-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="337" data-file-height="358" /></a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><a href="/wiki/File:Semitic-2.jpg" class="image" title="Early Latin A"><img alt="Early Latin A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Semitic-2.jpg/20px-Semitic-2.jpg" width="20" height="28" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Semitic-2.jpg/30px-Semitic-2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Semitic-2.jpg/40px-Semitic-2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="227" data-file-height="322" /></a><a href="/wiki/File:Latin-uncial-1.jpg" class="image" title="Latin 300 AD uncial, version 1"><img alt="Latin 300 AD uncial, version 1" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Latin-uncial-1.jpg/20px-Latin-uncial-1.jpg" width="20" height="20" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Latin-uncial-1.jpg/30px-Latin-uncial-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Latin-uncial-1.jpg/40px-Latin-uncial-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="279" data-file-height="281" /></a><ul style="line-height:100%;margin-left:0.45em;padding-left:0;"><li><b>A a</b></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Time period</th><td>~-700 to present</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Descendants</th><td>&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%C3%86" title="Æ">Æ</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%C3%84" title="Ä">Ä</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%C3%82" title="Â">Â</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%E2%B1%AD" class="mw-redirect" title="Ɑ"></a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%CE%9B" class="mw-redirect" title="Λ">Λ</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%E2%B1%AF" class="mw-redirect" title="Ɐ"></a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%C2%AA" class="mw-redirect" title="ª">ª</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%C3%85" title="Å">Å</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%E2%82%B3" class="mw-redirect" title="₳"></a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/@" class="mw-redirect" title="@">@</a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%E2%92%B6" class="mw-redirect" title="Ⓐ"></a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%E2%93%90" class="mw-redirect" title="ⓐ"></a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%E2%92%9C" class="mw-redirect" title="⒜"></a><br />&#160;&#8226;&#32;<a href="/wiki/%F0%9F%85%B0" class="mw-redirect" title="🅰">🅰</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Sisters</th><td><a href="/wiki/%F0%90%8C%B0" class="mw-redirect" title="𐌰">𐌰</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%D0%90" class="mw-redirect" title="А">А</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%D0%AF" class="mw-redirect" title="Я">Я</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%D3%98" class="mw-redirect" title="Ә">Ә</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%D3%90" class="mw-redirect" title="Ӑ">Ӑ</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Aleph" title="Aleph">א<br />ا<br />ܐ</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%E0%A0%80" class="mw-redirect" title="ࠀ"></a><br /><a href="/wiki/%F0%90%8E%80" class="mw-redirect" title="𐎀">𐎀</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%E2%84%B5" class="mw-redirect" title="ℵ"></a><br /><a href="/wiki/%E1%8A%A0" class="mw-redirect" title="አ"></a><br /><a href="/wiki/%D8%A1" class="mw-redirect" title="ء">ء</a><br /><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D4%B1" class="extiw" title="wikt:Ա">Ա</a> <a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D5%A1" class="extiw" title="wikt:ա">ա</a><br /><a href="/wiki/%E0%AA%85" class="mw-redirect" title="અ"></a><br /><a href="/wiki/%E0%A4%85" title="अ"></a><br /><a href="/wiki/%E0%A6%85" class="mw-redirect" title="অ"></a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Variations</th><td>(<a href="/wiki/A#Related_characters" title="A">See below</a>)</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background:lightblue; color:black; font-variant/style:&#32;;">Other</th></tr><tr><th scope="row">Other letters commonly used with</th><td><a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_digraphs#A" title="List of Latin-script digraphs">a(x)</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ae_(digraph)" class="mw-redirect" title="Ae (digraph)">ae</a>, <a href="/wiki/Eau_(trigraph)" title="Eau (trigraph)">eau</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Associated numbers</th><td>1</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="noprint selfref navbox-abovebelow" style="text-align:center;padding:0.3em 0.5em;text-align:left;line-height:1.3;"><span class="nowrap"><b>This article contains <a href="/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="International Phonetic Alphabet">IPA</a> phonetic symbols.</b></span> Without proper <a href="/wiki/Help:IPA#Rendering_issues" title="Help:IPA">rendering support</a>, you may see <a href="/wiki/Replacement_character" class="mw-redirect" title="Replacement character">question marks, boxes, or other symbols</a> instead of <a href="/wiki/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a> characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see <a href="/wiki/Help:IPA" title="Help:IPA">Help:IPA</a>.</td></tr></tbody></table>
<table align="right" style="margin:0;">
<tbody><tr><td align="center">
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:12em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%"><tbody><tr><td style="padding:0.4em 0;padding-top: 1em; padding-bottom: 1em;"><a href="/wiki/File:Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg" class="image" title="A"><img alt="A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg/120px-Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg.png" width="120" height="35" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg/180px-Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg/240px-Latin_alphabet_Aa.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="120" data-file-height="35" /></a></td></tr><tr><th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em"><a href="/wiki/ISO_basic_Latin_alphabet" title="ISO basic Latin alphabet">ISO basic<br />Latin alphabet</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<table style="width:100%; text-align:center;"><tbody><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a class="mw-selflink selflink">Aa</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/B" title="B">Bb</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/C" title="C">Cc</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/D" title="D">Dd</a></td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a href="/wiki/E" title="E">Ee</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/F" title="F">Ff</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/G" title="G">Gg</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/H" title="H">Hh</a></td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a href="/wiki/I" title="I">Ii</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/J" title="J">Jj</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/K" title="K">Kk</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/L" title="L">Ll</a></td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a href="/wiki/M" title="M">Mm</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/N" title="N">Nn</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/O" title="O">Oo</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/P" title="P">Pp</a></td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a href="/wiki/Q" title="Q">Qq</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/R" title="R">Rr</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/S" title="S">Ss</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/T" title="T">Tt</a></td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a href="/wiki/U" title="U">Uu</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/V" title="V">Vv</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/W" title="W">Ww</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/X" title="X">Xx</a></td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top"><td> <a href="/wiki/Y" title="Y">Yy</a></td><td> <a href="/wiki/Z" title="Z">Zz</a></td><td></td><td></td></tr></tbody></table></td>
</tr><tr><td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Latin_alphabet_sidebar" title="Template:Latin alphabet sidebar"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Latin_alphabet_sidebar" title="Template talk:Latin alphabet sidebar"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Latin_alphabet_sidebar&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<p><b>A</b> (<a href="/wiki/English_alphabet#Letter_names" title="English alphabet">named</a> <span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt"><a href="/wiki/Help:IPA/English" title="Help:IPA/English">/<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="/eɪ/: &#39;a&#39; in &#39;face&#39;"></span></span>/</a></span></span>, plural <i>As</i>, <i>A's</i>, <i>a</i>s, <i>a's</i> or <i>aes</i><sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">&#91;nb 1&#93;</a></sup>) is the first <a href="/wiki/Letter_(alphabet)" title="Letter (alphabet)">letter</a> and the first <a href="/wiki/Vowel" title="Vowel">vowel</a> of the <a href="/wiki/ISO_basic_Latin_alphabet" title="ISO basic Latin alphabet">ISO basic Latin alphabet</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-oed_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-oed-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> It is similar to the <a href="/wiki/Greek_alphabet#History" title="Greek alphabet">Ancient Greek letter</a> <a href="/wiki/Alpha" title="Alpha">alpha</a>, from which it derives.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>  The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey <b>a</b> and single-storey <b>ɑ</b>. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in <a href="/wiki/Italic_type" title="Italic type">italic type</a>.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Typographic_variants"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Typographic variants</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Use_in_writing_systems"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Use in writing systems</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#English"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">English</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Other_languages"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Other languages</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Other_systems"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Other systems</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#Other_uses"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Other uses</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Related_characters"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Related characters</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Descendants_and_related_characters_in_the_Latin_alphabet"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Derived_signs,_symbols_and_abbreviations"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Ancestors_and_siblings_in_other_alphabets"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Computing_codes"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Computing codes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Other_representations"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Other representations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-14"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a href="#Footnotes"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Footnotes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: History">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table class="wikitable">

<tbody><tr style="background-color:#EEEEEE; text-align:center;">
<th>Egyptian&#160;&#160;
</th>
<th>Cretan
</th>
<th>Phoenician <br /><i><a href="/wiki/Aleph" title="Aleph">aleph</a></i>
</th>
<th>Semitic <br />
</th>
<th>Greek <br /><i><a href="/wiki/Alpha" title="Alpha">Alpha</a></i>
</th>
<th>Etruscan <br />A
</th>
<th>Roman/Cyrillic <br />A
</th>
<th>Boeotian<br /> 800–700 BC
</th>
<th>Greek <br /> Uncial
</th>
<th>Latin 300 AD <br /> Uncial
</th></tr>
<tr style="background-color:white; text-align:center;">
<td><a href="/wiki/File:EgyptianA-01.svg" class="image" title="Egyptian hieroglyphic ox head"><img alt="Egyptian hieroglyphic ox head" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/EgyptianA-01.svg/64px-EgyptianA-01.svg.png" width="64" height="64" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/EgyptianA-01.svg/96px-EgyptianA-01.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/EgyptianA-01.svg/128px-EgyptianA-01.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="64" data-file-height="64" /></a>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Cretan-1.jpg" class="image" title="Early Crete version of the letter &quot;A&quot;"><img alt="Early Crete version of the letter &quot;A&quot;" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cretan-1.jpg/35px-Cretan-1.jpg" width="35" height="36" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cretan-1.jpg/53px-Cretan-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cretan-1.jpg/70px-Cretan-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="408" data-file-height="415" /></a>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:PhoenicianA-01.svg" class="image" title="Phoenician aleph"><img alt="Phoenician aleph" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/PhoenicianA-01.svg/40px-PhoenicianA-01.svg.png" width="40" height="41" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/PhoenicianA-01.svg/60px-PhoenicianA-01.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/PhoenicianA-01.svg/80px-PhoenicianA-01.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="64" data-file-height="65" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Semitic-A2.jpg" class="image" title="Semitic letter &quot;A&quot;, version 1"><img alt="Semitic letter &quot;A&quot;, version 1" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Semitic-A2.jpg/35px-Semitic-A2.jpg" width="35" height="42" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Semitic-A2.jpg/53px-Semitic-A2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Semitic-A2.jpg/70px-Semitic-A2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="207" data-file-height="249" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Alpha_uc_lc.svg" class="image" title="Greek alpha, version 1"><img alt="Greek alpha, version 1" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Alpha_uc_lc.svg/45px-Alpha_uc_lc.svg.png" width="45" height="30" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Alpha_uc_lc.svg/68px-Alpha_uc_lc.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Alpha_uc_lc.svg/90px-Alpha_uc_lc.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="3000" data-file-height="2000" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:EtruscanA.svg" class="image" title="Etruscan A, version 1"><img alt="Etruscan A, version 1" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/EtruscanA.svg/30px-EtruscanA.svg.png" width="30" height="45" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/EtruscanA.svg/45px-EtruscanA.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/EtruscanA.svg/60px-EtruscanA.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="39" data-file-height="59" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:RomanA-01.svg" class="image" title="Roman A"><img alt="Roman A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/RomanA-01.svg/30px-RomanA-01.svg.png" width="30" height="28" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/RomanA-01.svg/45px-RomanA-01.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/RomanA-01.svg/60px-RomanA-01.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="60" data-file-height="55" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Beoetian2.jpg" class="image" title="Boeotian"><img alt="Boeotian" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Beoetian2.jpg/35px-Beoetian2.jpg" width="35" height="24" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Beoetian2.jpg/53px-Beoetian2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Beoetian2.jpg/70px-Beoetian2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="475" data-file-height="330" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Greek-uncial-1.jpg" class="image" title="Greek Classical uncial, version 1"><img alt="Greek Classical uncial, version 1" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Greek-uncial-1.jpg/35px-Greek-uncial-1.jpg" width="35" height="37" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Greek-uncial-1.jpg/53px-Greek-uncial-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Greek-uncial-1.jpg/70px-Greek-uncial-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="337" data-file-height="358" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Latin-uncial-1.jpg" class="image" title="Latin 300 AD uncial, version 1"><img alt="Latin 300 AD uncial, version 1" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Latin-uncial-1.jpg/35px-Latin-uncial-1.jpg" width="35" height="35" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Latin-uncial-1.jpg/53px-Latin-uncial-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Latin-uncial-1.jpg/70px-Latin-uncial-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="279" data-file-height="281" /></a>
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<td><table class="mw-hiero-table mw-hiero-outer" dir="ltr"><tbody><tr><td> <table class="mw-hiero-table"><tbody><tr> <td><img style="margin: 1px;" src="/w/extensions/wikihiero/img/hiero_F1.png?8f0ee" height="18" title="F1" alt="F1" /></td></tr></tbody></table> </td></tr></tbody></table>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Cretan-2.jpg" class="image" title="Crete &quot;A&quot;"><img alt="Crete &quot;A&quot;" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Cretan-2.jpg/35px-Cretan-2.jpg" width="35" height="28" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Cretan-2.jpg/53px-Cretan-2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Cretan-2.jpg/70px-Cretan-2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="392" data-file-height="312" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Phoenician1a.jpg" class="image" title="Phoenician version of the &quot;A&quot;"><img alt="Phoenician version of the &quot;A&quot;" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2b/Phoenician1a.jpg/35px-Phoenician1a.jpg" width="35" height="30" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2b/Phoenician1a.jpg/53px-Phoenician1a.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2b/Phoenician1a.jpg/70px-Phoenician1a.jpg 2x" data-file-width="472" data-file-height="406" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Semitic-2.jpg" class="image" title="Semitic &quot;A&quot;, version 2"><img alt="Semitic &quot;A&quot;, version 2" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Semitic-2.jpg/35px-Semitic-2.jpg" width="35" height="50" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Semitic-2.jpg/53px-Semitic-2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Semitic-2.jpg/70px-Semitic-2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="227" data-file-height="322" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Greek-2.jpg" class="image" title="Greek alpha, version 2"><img alt="Greek alpha, version 2" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Greek-2.jpg/30px-Greek-2.jpg" width="30" height="58" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Greek-2.jpg/45px-Greek-2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Greek-2.jpg/60px-Greek-2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="204" data-file-height="397" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Etr2.jpg" class="image" title="Etruscan A, version 2"><img alt="Etruscan A, version 2" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Etr2.jpg/35px-Etr2.jpg" width="35" height="34" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Etr2.jpg/53px-Etr2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Etr2.jpg/70px-Etr2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="418" data-file-height="401" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg" class="image" title="Latin 4th century BC"><img alt="Latin 4th century BC" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg/35px-Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg" width="35" height="43" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg/53px-Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg/70px-Latin_4th_cent_BC.jpg 2x" data-file-width="294" data-file-height="362" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Beoetian.jpg" class="image" title="Boeotioan 800 BC"><img alt="Boeotioan 800 BC" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Beoetian.jpg/45px-Beoetian.jpg" width="45" height="31" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Beoetian.jpg/68px-Beoetian.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Beoetian.jpg/90px-Beoetian.jpg 2x" data-file-width="476" data-file-height="330" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Greek-uncial-2.jpg" class="image" title="Greek Classical uncial, version 2"><img alt="Greek Classical uncial, version 2" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Greek-uncial-2.jpg/35px-Greek-uncial-2.jpg" width="35" height="33" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Greek-uncial-2.jpg/53px-Greek-uncial-2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Greek-uncial-2.jpg/70px-Greek-uncial-2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="386" data-file-height="366" /></a>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Latin-uncial-2.jpg" class="image" title="Latin 300 AD uncial, version 2"><img alt="Latin 300 AD uncial, version 2" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Latin-uncial-2.jpg/35px-Latin-uncial-2.jpg" width="35" height="39" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Latin-uncial-2.jpg/53px-Latin-uncial-2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Latin-uncial-2.jpg/70px-Latin-uncial-2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="226" data-file-height="252" /></a>
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<p>The earliest certain ancestor of "A" is <a href="/wiki/Aleph" title="Aleph">aleph</a> (also written 'aleph), the first letter of the <a href="/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet" title="Phoenician alphabet">Phoenician alphabet</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Britannica_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Britannica-4">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> which consisted entirely of <a href="/wiki/Consonant" title="Consonant">consonants</a> (for that reason, it is also called an <a href="/wiki/Abjad" title="Abjad">abjad</a> to distinguish it from a true <a href="/wiki/Alphabet" title="Alphabet">alphabet</a>). In turn, the ancestor of aleph may have been a <a href="/wiki/Pictogram" title="Pictogram">pictogram</a> of an ox head in <a href="/wiki/Proto-Sinaitic_script" title="Proto-Sinaitic script">proto-Sinaitic script</a><sup id="cite_ref-Coll_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Coll-5">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> influenced by <a href="/wiki/Egyptian_hieroglyphs" title="Egyptian hieroglyphs">Egyptian hieroglyphs</a>, styled as a triangular head with two horns extended.
</p><p>By 1600 BC, the Phoenician alphabet letter had a linear form that served as the base for some later forms. Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the <a href="/wiki/Hebrew_alphabet" title="Hebrew alphabet">Hebrew</a> or <a href="/wiki/Arabic_script" title="Arabic script">Arabic</a> aleph.
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<table cellspacing="10" cellpadding="0" style="background-color: white; float: right;">

<tbody><tr align="center">
<td><a href="/wiki/File:BlackletterA-01.png" class="image" title="Blackletter A"><img alt="Blackletter A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/BlackletterA-01.png" width="64" height="64" data-file-width="64" data-file-height="64" /></a><br /><a href="/wiki/Blackletter" title="Blackletter">Blackletter</a> A
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:UncialA-01.svg" class="image" title="Uncial A"><img alt="Uncial A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/UncialA-01.svg/58px-UncialA-01.svg.png" width="58" height="47" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/UncialA-01.svg/87px-UncialA-01.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/UncialA-01.svg/116px-UncialA-01.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="58" data-file-height="47" /></a><br /><a href="/wiki/Uncial_script" title="Uncial script">Uncial</a> A
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Acap.svg" class="image" title="Another Capital A"><img alt="Another Capital A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Acap.svg/45px-Acap.svg.png" width="45" height="50" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Acap.svg/68px-Acap.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Acap.svg/90px-Acap.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="45" data-file-height="50" /></a><br />Another Blackletter A&#160;
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<tr align="center">
<td><a href="/wiki/File:ModernRomanA-01.svg" class="image" title="Modern Roman A"><img alt="Modern Roman A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/ModernRomanA-01.svg/64px-ModernRomanA-01.svg.png" width="64" height="63" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/ModernRomanA-01.svg/96px-ModernRomanA-01.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/ModernRomanA-01.svg/128px-ModernRomanA-01.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="429" data-file-height="425" /></a><br />Modern Roman A
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Modern_Italic_A.svg" class="image" title="Modern Italic A"><img alt="Modern Italic A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Modern_Italic_A.svg/64px-Modern_Italic_A.svg.png" width="64" height="64" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Modern_Italic_A.svg/96px-Modern_Italic_A.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Modern_Italic_A.svg/128px-Modern_Italic_A.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="64" data-file-height="64" /></a><br />Modern Italic A
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Modern_Script_A.svg" class="image" title="Modern Script A"><img alt="Modern Script A" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Modern_Script_A.svg/64px-Modern_Script_A.svg.png" width="64" height="64" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Modern_Script_A.svg/96px-Modern_Script_A.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Modern_Script_A.svg/128px-Modern_Script_A.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="64" data-file-height="64" /></a><br />Modern script A
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<p>When the <a href="/wiki/Ancient_Greece" title="Ancient Greece">ancient Greeks</a> adopted the alphabet, they had no use for a letter to represent the <a href="/wiki/Glottal_stop" title="Glottal stop">glottal stop</a>—the consonant sound that the letter denoted in <a href="/wiki/Phoenician_language" title="Phoenician language">Phoenician</a> and other <a href="/wiki/Semitic_languages" title="Semitic languages">Semitic languages</a>, and that was the first <a href="/wiki/Phoneme" title="Phoneme">phoneme</a> of the Phoenician pronunciation of the letter—so they used their version of the sign to represent the vowel <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/a/</span>, and called it by the similar name of <a href="/wiki/Alpha" title="Alpha">alpha</a>. In the earliest Greek inscriptions after the <a href="/wiki/Greek_Dark_Ages" title="Greek Dark Ages">Greek Dark Ages</a>, dating to the 8th century BC, the letter rests upon its side, but in the <a href="/wiki/Greek_alphabet" title="Greek alphabet">Greek alphabet</a> of later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, although many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set.
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Etruscan_civilization" title="Etruscan civilization">Etruscans</a> brought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the <a href="/wiki/Italian_Peninsula" title="Italian Peninsula">Italian Peninsula</a> and left the letter unchanged. The Romans later adopted the <a href="/wiki/Old_Italic_script" title="Old Italic script">Etruscan alphabet</a> to write the <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin language</a>, and the resulting letter was preserved in the <a href="/wiki/Latin_script" title="Latin script">Latin alphabet</a> that would come to be used to write many languages, including English.
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Typographic_variants">Typographic variants</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Typographic variants">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:142px;"><a href="/wiki/File:A-small_glyphs.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/A-small_glyphs.svg/140px-A-small_glyphs.svg.png" width="140" height="133" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/A-small_glyphs.svg/210px-A-small_glyphs.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/A-small_glyphs.svg/280px-A-small_glyphs.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="293" data-file-height="278" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:A-small_glyphs.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Different <a href="/wiki/Glyphs" class="mw-redirect" title="Glyphs">glyphs</a> of the lowercase letter A.</div></div></div>
<p>During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter "A". First was the monumental or lapidary style, which was used when inscribing on stone or other "permanent" media. There was also a <a href="/wiki/Cursive" title="Cursive">cursive</a> style used for everyday or utilitarian writing, which was done on more perishable surfaces. Due to the "perishable" nature of these surfaces, there are not as many examples of this style as there are of the monumental, but there are still many surviving examples of different types of cursive, such as <a href="/wiki/Letter_case" title="Letter case">majuscule</a> cursive, <a href="/wiki/Letter_case" title="Letter case">minuscule</a> cursive, and semicursive minuscule. Variants also existed that were intermediate between the monumental and cursive styles. The known variants include the early <a href="/wiki/Uncial_script#Half-uncial" title="Uncial script">semi-uncial</a>, the uncial, and the later semi-uncial.<sup id="cite_ref-Americana_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Americana-6">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
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<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:LowercaseA.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/LowercaseA.svg/200px-LowercaseA.svg.png" width="200" height="236" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/LowercaseA.svg/300px-LowercaseA.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/LowercaseA.svg/400px-LowercaseA.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="396" data-file-height="468" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:LowercaseA.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Allography" title="Allography">Typographic variants</a> include a double-storey <b>a</b> and single-storey <b>ɑ</b>.</div></div></div><p>At the end of the <a href="/wiki/Roman_Empire" title="Roman Empire">Roman Empire</a> (5th century AD), several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe. Among these were the semicursive minuscule of <a href="/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italy</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Merovingian_script" title="Merovingian script">Merovingian script</a> in France, the <a href="/wiki/Visigothic_script" title="Visigothic script">Visigothic script</a> in Spain, and the <a href="/wiki/Insular_script" title="Insular script">Insular</a> or Anglo-Irish semi-uncial or Anglo-Saxon majuscule of Great Britain. By the 9th century, the <a href="/wiki/Carolingian_minuscule" title="Carolingian minuscule">Caroline script</a>, which was very similar to the present-day form, was the principal form used in book-making, before the advent of the printing press. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms.<sup id="cite_ref-Americana_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Americana-6">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>15th-century Italy saw the formation of the two main variants that are known today. These variants, the <i>Italic</i> and <i>Roman</i> forms, were derived from the Caroline Script version. The Italic form, also called <i>script a,</i> is used in most current <a href="/wiki/Handwriting" title="Handwriting">handwriting</a> and consists of a circle and vertical stroke. This slowly developed from the fifth-century form resembling the Greek letter <a href="/wiki/Tau" title="Tau">tau</a> in the hands of medieval Irish and English writers.<sup id="cite_ref-Britannica_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Britannica-4">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> The Roman form is used in most printed material; it consists of a small loop with an arc over it ("a").<sup id="cite_ref-Americana_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Americana-6">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup> Both derive from the majuscule (capital) form. In Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the uncial version shown. Many fonts then made the right leg vertical. In some of these, the <a href="/wiki/Serif" title="Serif">serif</a> that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Italic_type" title="Italic type">Italic type</a> is commonly used to mark emphasis or more generally to distinguish one part of a text from the rest (set in Roman type). There are some other cases aside from italic type where <i>script a</i> ("ɑ"), also called <a href="/wiki/Latin_alpha" title="Latin alpha">Latin alpha</a>, is used in contrast with Latin "a" (such as in the <a href="/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="International Phonetic Alphabet">International Phonetic Alphabet</a>).
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Use_in_writing_systems">Use in writing systems</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Use in writing systems">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:300px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/64/Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png/298px-Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png" width="298" height="305" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/64/Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png/448px-Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/64/Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png/597px-Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png 2x" data-file-width="2000" data-file-height="2044" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Pronunciation_of_the_name_of_the_letter_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9_in_European_languages.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Pronunciation of the name of the letter &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; in European languages, note that /a/ and /aː/ can differ phonetically between <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">[<a href="/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Open front unrounded vowel">a</a>]</span>, <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">[<a href="/wiki/Open_central_unrounded_vowel" title="Open central unrounded vowel">ä</a>]</span>, <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">[<a href="/wiki/Near-open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Near-open front unrounded vowel">æ</a>]</span> and <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">[<a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">ɑ</a>]</span> depending on the language.</div></div></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="English">English</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: English">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Pronunciation_of_English_%E2%9F%A8a%E2%9F%A9" title="Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩">Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩</a></div>
<p>In modern <a href="/wiki/English_orthography" title="English orthography">English orthography</a>, the letter &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; represents at least seven different vowel sounds:
</p>
<ul><li>the <a href="/wiki/Near-open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Near-open front unrounded vowel">near-open front unrounded vowel</a> <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/æ/</span> as in <i>pad</i>;</li>
<li>the <a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">open back unrounded vowel</a> <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/ɑː/</span> as in <i>father</i>, which is closer to its original Latin and Greek sound;<sup id="cite_ref-Coll_5-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Coll-5">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>the <a href="/wiki/Diphthong" title="Diphthong">diphthong</a> <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/eɪ/</span> as in <i>ace</i> and <i>major</i> (usually when &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; is followed by one, or occasionally two, consonants and then another vowel letter) – this results from <a href="/wiki/Middle_English_lengthening" class="mw-redirect" title="Middle English lengthening">Middle English lengthening</a> followed by the <a href="/wiki/Great_Vowel_Shift" title="Great Vowel Shift">Great Vowel Shift</a>;</li>
<li>the modified form of the above sound that occurs <a href="/wiki/English-language_vowel_changes_before_historic_/r/" title="English-language vowel changes before historic /r/">before &#x27e8;r&#x27e9;</a>, as in <i>square</i> and <i>Mary</i>;</li>
<li>the rounded vowel of <i>water</i>;</li>
<li>the shorter rounded vowel (not present in <a href="/wiki/General_American" title="General American">General American</a>) in <i>was</i> and <i>what</i>;<sup id="cite_ref-Britannica_4-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Britannica-4">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>a <a href="/wiki/Schwa" title="Schwa">schwa</a>, in many unstressed syllables, as in <i>about</i>, <i>comma</i>, <i>solar</i>.</li></ul>
<p>The double &#x27e8;aa&#x27e9; sequence does not occur in native English words, but is found in some words derived from foreign languages such as <i>Aaron</i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Aardvark" title="Aardvark">aardvark</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup> However, &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; occurs in <a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_digraphs" title="List of Latin-script digraphs">many common digraphs</a>, all with their own sound or sounds, particularly &#x27e8;ai&#x27e9;, &#x27e8;au&#x27e9;, &#x27e8;aw&#x27e9;, &#x27e8;ay&#x27e9;, &#x27e8;ea&#x27e9; and &#x27e8;oa&#x27e9;.
</p><p>&#x27e8;a&#x27e9; is the third-most-commonly used letter in English (after &#x27e8;e&#x27e9; and &#x27e8;t&#x27e9;),<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> and the second most common in Spanish and French. In one study, on average, about 3.68% of letters used in English texts tend to be &#x27e8;a&#x27e9;, while the number is 6.22% in Spanish and 3.95% in French.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_languages">Other languages</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Other languages">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In most languages that use the Latin alphabet, &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; denotes an open unrounded vowel, such as <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/<a href="/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Open front unrounded vowel">a</a>/</span>, <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/<a href="/wiki/Open_central_unrounded_vowel" title="Open central unrounded vowel">ä</a>/</span>, or <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/<a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">ɑ</a>/</span>. An exception is <a href="/wiki/Saanich_dialect" title="Saanich dialect">Saanich</a>, in which &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; (and the glyph <a href="/wiki/%C3%81" title="Á">Á</a>) stands for a <a href="/wiki/Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Close-mid front unrounded vowel">close-mid front unrounded vowel</a> <span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">/e/</span>.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_systems">Other systems</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Other systems">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In phonetic and phonemic notation:
</p>
<ul><li>in the <a href="/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="International Phonetic Alphabet">International Phonetic Alphabet</a>, &#x27e8;<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">a</span>&#x27e9; is used for the <a href="/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Open front unrounded vowel">open front unrounded vowel</a>, &#x27e8;<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">ä</span>&#x27e9; is used for the <a href="/wiki/Open_central_unrounded_vowel" title="Open central unrounded vowel">open central unrounded vowel</a>, and &#x27e8;<span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">ɑ</span>&#x27e9; is used for the <a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">open back unrounded vowel</a>.</li>
<li>in <a href="/wiki/X-SAMPA" title="X-SAMPA">X-SAMPA</a>, &#x27e8;a&#x27e9; is used for the <a href="/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel" title="Open front unrounded vowel">open front unrounded vowel</a> and &#x27e8;A&#x27e9; is used for the <a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">open back unrounded vowel</a>.</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_uses">Other uses</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Other uses">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/A_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="A (disambiguation)">A (disambiguation)</a></div>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Algebra" title="Algebra">algebra</a>, the letter <i>a</i> along with other letters at the beginning of the alphabet is used to represent known quantities, whereas the letters at the end of the alphabet (<i>x</i>, <i>y</i>, <i>z</i>) are used to denote unknown quantities.
</p><p>In <a href="/wiki/Geometry" title="Geometry">geometry</a>, capital A, B, C etc. are used to denote <a href="/wiki/Line_segment" title="Line segment">segments</a>, <a href="/wiki/Line_(geometry)" title="Line (geometry)">lines</a>, <a href="/wiki/Line_(geometry)#Ray" title="Line (geometry)">rays</a>, etc.<sup id="cite_ref-Americana_6-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Americana-6">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup> A capital A is also typically used as one of the letters to represent an angle in a <a href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">triangle</a>, the lowercase a representing the side opposite angle A.<sup id="cite_ref-Coll_5-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Coll-5">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>"A" is often used to denote something or someone of a better or more prestigious quality or status: A-, A or A+, the best grade that can be assigned by teachers for students' schoolwork; "A grade" for clean restaurants; <a href="/wiki/A-list" title="A-list">A-list</a> celebrities, etc. Such associations can have a <a href="/wiki/Motivation" title="Motivation">motivating</a> effect, as exposure to the letter A has been found to improve performance, when compared with other letters.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>"A" is used as a prefix on some words, such as <a href="/wiki/Asymmetry" title="Asymmetry">asymmetry</a>, to mean "not" or "without" (from Greek).
</p><p>Finally, the letter A is used to denote size, as in a narrow size shoe,<sup id="cite_ref-Coll_5-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Coll-5">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> or a small cup size in a <a href="/wiki/Brassiere" class="mw-redirect" title="Brassiere">brassiere</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2015)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Related_characters">Related characters</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Related characters">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Descendants_and_related_characters_in_the_Latin_alphabet">Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul><li>Æ æ&#160;: <a href="/wiki/%C3%86" title="Æ">Latin <i>AE</i></a> ligature</li>
<li>A with <a href="/wiki/Diacritic" title="Diacritic">diacritics</a>: <a href="/wiki/%C3%85" title="Å">Å å</a> <a href="/wiki/%C7%BA" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǻ">Ǻ ǻ</a> <a href="/wiki/Ring_(diacritic)" title="Ring (diacritic)">Ḁ ḁ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%9A" class="mw-redirect" title="ẚ"></a> <a href="/wiki/%C4%82" title="Ă">Ă ă</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B6" class="mw-redirect" title="Ặ">Ặ ặ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%AE" class="mw-redirect" title="Ắ">Ắ ắ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B0" class="mw-redirect" title="Ằ">Ằ ằ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B2" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẳ">Ẳ ẳ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B4" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẵ">Ẵ ẵ</a> <a href="/wiki/%C8%82" class="mw-redirect" title="Ȃ">Ȃ ȃ</a> <a href="/wiki/%C3%82" title="Â">Â â</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%AC" class="mw-redirect" title="Ậ">Ậ ậ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A4" class="mw-redirect" title="Ấ">Ấ ấ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A6" class="mw-redirect" title="Ầ">Ầ ầ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%AA" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẫ">Ẫ ẫ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A8" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẩ">Ẩ ẩ</a> <a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A2" class="mw-redirect" title="Ả">Ả ả</a> <a href="/wiki/Caron" title="Caron">Ǎ ǎ</a> <a href="/wiki/Bar_(diacritic)" title="Bar (diacritic)">Ⱥ ⱥ</a> <a href="/wiki/Dot_(diacritic)" title="Dot (diacritic)">Ȧ ȧ</a> <a href="/wiki/%C7%A0" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǡ">Ǡ ǡ</a> <a href="/wiki/Dot_(diacritic)" title="Dot (diacritic)">Ạ ạ</a> <a href="/wiki/%C3%84" title="Ä">Ä ä</a> <a href="/wiki/%C7%9E" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǟ">Ǟ ǟ</a> <a href="/wiki/%C3%80" title="À">À à</a> <a href="/wiki/%C8%80" class="mw-redirect" title="Ȁ">Ȁ ȁ</a> <a href="/wiki/%C3%81" title="Á">Á á</a> <a href="/wiki/%C4%80" title="Ā">Ā ā</a> Ā̀ ā̀ <a href="/wiki/%C3%83" title="Ã">Ã ã</a> <a href="/wiki/%C4%84" title="Ą">Ą ą</a> Ą́ ą́ Ą̃ ą̃ <a href="/wiki/%E1%B6%8F" class="mw-redirect" title="ᶏ"></a><sup id="cite_ref-L204132_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-L204132-11">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Phonetic_transcription#Alphabetic" title="Phonetic transcription">Phonetic alphabet</a> symbols related to A (the <a href="/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="International Phonetic Alphabet">International Phonetic Alphabet</a> only uses lowercase, but uppercase forms are used in some other writing systems):
<ul><li>Ɑ ɑ&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Latin_alpha" title="Latin alpha">Latin letter alpha / script A</a>, which represents an <a href="/wiki/Open_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open back unrounded vowel">open back unrounded vowel</a> in the IPA</li>
<li>&#160;: Latin small letter alpha with retroflex hook<sup id="cite_ref-L204132_11-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-L204132-11">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>Ɐ ɐ&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Turned_A" title="Turned A">Turned A</a>, which represents a <a href="/wiki/Near-open_central_vowel" title="Near-open central vowel">near-open central vowel</a> in the IPA</li>
<li>Λ ʌ&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Turned_V" class="mw-redirect" title="Turned V">turned V</a> (also called a wedge, a caret, or a hat), which represents an <a href="/wiki/Open-mid_back_unrounded_vowel" title="Open-mid back unrounded vowel">open-mid back unrounded vowel</a> in the IPA</li>
<li>Ɒ ɒ&#160;: Turned alpha / script A, which represents an <a href="/wiki/Open_back_rounded_vowel" title="Open back rounded vowel">open back rounded vowel</a> in the IPA</li>
<li>&#160;: Modifier letter small turned alpha<sup id="cite_ref-L204132_11-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-L204132-11">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>&#160;: Small capital A, an <a href="/wiki/Obsolete_and_nonstandard_symbols_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet">obsolete or non-standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet</a> used to represent various sounds (mainly open vowels)</li>
<li>ᴬ ᵃ ᵄ&#160;: Modifier letters are used in the <a href="/wiki/Uralic_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="Uralic Phonetic Alphabet">Uralic Phonetic Alphabet</a> (UPA).<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>&#160;: Subscript small a is used in <a href="/wiki/Indo-European_studies" title="Indo-European studies">Indo-European studies</a><sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>&#160;: Small letter a reversed-schwa is used in the <a href="/wiki/Teuthonista" title="Teuthonista">Teuthonista</a> phonetic transcription system<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup></li></ul></li></ul>
<h3><span id="Derived_signs.2C_symbols_and_abbreviations"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Derived_signs,_symbols_and_abbreviations">Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul><li><big>ª</big>&#160;: an <a href="/wiki/Ordinal_indicator" title="Ordinal indicator">ordinal indicator</a></li>
<li>&#x212b;&#160;: <a href="/wiki/%C3%85ngstr%C3%B6m" title="Ångström">Ångström</a> sign</li>
<li>&#160;: a turned capital letter A, used in <a href="/wiki/Predicate_logic" class="mw-redirect" title="Predicate logic">predicate logic</a> to specify <a href="/wiki/Universal_quantification" title="Universal quantification">universal quantification</a> ("for all")</li>
<li>@&#160;: <a href="/wiki/At_sign" title="At sign">At sign</a></li>
<li>&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Argentine_austral" title="Argentine austral">Argentine austral</a></li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ancestors_and_siblings_in_other_alphabets">Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul><li>𐤀&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet" title="Phoenician alphabet">Semitic</a> letter <a href="/wiki/Aleph" title="Aleph">Aleph</a>, from which the following symbols originally derive<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
<ul><li>Α α&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Greek_alphabet" title="Greek alphabet">Greek</a> letter <a href="/wiki/Alpha" title="Alpha">Alpha</a>, from which the following letters derive<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup>
<ul><li>А а&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Cyrillic" class="mw-redirect" title="Cyrillic">Cyrillic</a> letter <a href="/wiki/A_(Cyrillic)" title="A (Cyrillic)">A</a><sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r866749073">.mw-parser-output .script-coptic{font-family:"New Athena Unicode","MPH 2B Damase","FreeSerif","Arial Coptic",Quivira,Analecta,Antinoou,"Sophia Nubian","Noto Sans Coptic","Segoe UI Historic","Segoe UI Symbol"}</style><span class="script-coptic">Ⲁ ⲁ</span>&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Coptic_alphabet" title="Coptic alphabet">Coptic</a> letter Alpha<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>𐌀&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Old_Italic_script" title="Old Italic script">Old Italic</a> A, which is the ancestor of modern Latin A<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup>
<ul><li><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r866749445">.mw-parser-output .script-runic{font-family:"BabelStone Runic Beagnoth","BabelStone Runic Beorhtnoth","BabelStone Runic Beorhtric","BabelStone Runic Beowulf","BabelStone Runic Berhtwald","BabelStone Runic Byrhtferth",Junicode,Kelvinch,"Free Monospaced",Code2000,Hnias,"Noto Sans Runic","Segoe UI Historic","Segoe UI Symbol"}</style><span title="runes" class="script-runic" lang="gem-Runr"></span>&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Runes" title="Runes">Runic</a> letter <a href="/wiki/Ansuz_(rune)" title="Ansuz (rune)">ansuz</a>, which probably derives from old Italic A<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup></li></ul></li>
<li><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r866748126">.mw-parser-output .script-gothic{font-size:1.25em;font-family:Vulcanius,Junicode,Pfeffer Mediæval,Ulfilas,Silubr,Skeirs,Midjungards,ALPHABETUM,FreeSerif,FreeSans,"Noto Sans Gothic",Code2001,"Segoe UI Historic","Segoe UI Symbol",serif}</style><span class="script-gothic">𐌰</span>&#160;: <a href="/wiki/Gothic_alphabet" title="Gothic alphabet">Gothic</a> letter aza/asks<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2018)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Computing_codes">Computing codes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Computing codes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table class="wikitable" style="text-align:right">

<tbody><tr align="center">
<th align="left">Character</th>
<th colspan="2" style="font-size: 150%">&#x41;</th>
<th colspan="2" style="font-size: 150%">&#x61;
</th></tr>
<tr style="text-align:center;">
<td align="center"><b>Unicode name</b></td>
<td colspan="2"><span class="smallcaps"><span style="font-variant: small-caps; text-transform: lowercase;">LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A</span></span></td>
<td colspan="2"><span class="smallcaps"><span style="font-variant: small-caps; text-transform: lowercase;">LATIN SMALL LETTER A</span></span>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th style="text-align:left;">Encodings</th>
<th>decimal</th>
<th>hex</th>
<th>decimal</th>
<th>hex
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a></td>
<td>65</td>
<td>U+0041</td>
<td>97</td>
<td>U+0061
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/UTF-8" title="UTF-8">UTF-8</a></td>
<td>65</td>
<td>41</td>
<td>97</td>
<td>61
</td></tr>


<tr>
<td style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Numeric_character_reference" title="Numeric character reference">Numeric character reference</a></td>
<td>&amp;#65;</td>
<td>&amp;#x41;</td>
<td>&amp;#97;</td>
<td>&amp;#x61;
</td></tr>


<tr>
<td style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/EBCDIC" title="EBCDIC">EBCDIC</a> family</td>
<td>193</td>
<td>C1</td>
<td>129</td>
<td>81
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/ASCII" title="ASCII">ASCII</a> <sup>1</sup></td>
<td>65</td>
<td>41</td>
<td>97</td>
<td>61
</td></tr>

























</tbody></table>
<dl><dd><sup>1</sup> <span style="font-size:92%;line-height:1.30em;">Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.</span></dd></dl>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_representations">Other representations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Other representations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div style="width: 400px;">
<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="text-align: center; background: white;">

<tbody><tr style="font-size: 85%; line-height: 125%;">
<td width="50%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-top: 1px solid silver; line-height:1.3em; padding:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/ICAO_spelling_alphabet" class="mw-redirect" title="ICAO spelling alphabet">NATO phonetic</a>
</td>
<td width="50%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-top: 1px solid silver; border-right: 1px solid silver;"><a href="/wiki/Morse_code" title="Morse code">Morse code</a>
</td></tr>
<tr style="font-family: monospace; font-weight: bold; line-height: 100%; font-size:150%">
<td width="50%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; padding:0.3em;">Alpha
</td>
<td width="50%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-right: 1px solid silver; font-size: large;"><span class="plainlinksneverexpand nounderlines" style="letter-spacing: 0.2em;"><a href="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/A_morse_code.ogg" class="internal" title="A morse code.ogg">·–</a></span>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%" style="text-align: center; background: white;">

<tbody><tr style="height: 80px;">
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-top: 1px solid silver; padding:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/File:ICS_Alpha.svg" class="image"><img alt="ICS Alpha.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/71/ICS_Alpha.svg/75px-ICS_Alpha.svg.png" width="75" height="75" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/71/ICS_Alpha.svg/113px-ICS_Alpha.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/71/ICS_Alpha.svg/150px-ICS_Alpha.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="600" /></a>
</td>
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-top: 1px solid silver; padding:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/File:Semaphore_Alpha.svg" class="image"><img alt="Semaphore Alpha.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Semaphore_Alpha.svg/90px-Semaphore_Alpha.svg.png" width="90" height="75" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Semaphore_Alpha.svg/135px-Semaphore_Alpha.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Semaphore_Alpha.svg/180px-Semaphore_Alpha.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="500" /></a>
</td>
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-top: 1px solid silver; padding:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/File:Sign_language_A.svg" class="image"><img alt="Sign language A.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Sign_language_A.svg/90px-Sign_language_A.svg.png" width="90" height="118" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Sign_language_A.svg/135px-Sign_language_A.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Sign_language_A.svg/180px-Sign_language_A.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="323" data-file-height="424" /></a>
</td>
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-right: 1px solid silver; border-top: 1px solid silver; padding:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/File:Braille_A1.svg" class="image" title="⠁"><img alt="⠁" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Braille_A1.svg/77px-Braille_A1.svg.png" width="77" height="108" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Braille_A1.svg/116px-Braille_A1.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Braille_A1.svg/154px-Braille_A1.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="154" data-file-height="215" /></a>
</td></tr>
<tr style="font-size: 85%; line-height: 125%;">
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-bottom: 1px solid silver; padding-bottom:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/International_maritime_signal_flags" title="International maritime signal flags">Signal flag</a>
</td>
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-bottom: 1px solid silver;"><a href="/wiki/Flag_semaphore" title="Flag semaphore">Flag semaphore</a>
</td>
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-bottom: 1px solid silver;"><a href="/wiki/American_manual_alphabet" title="American manual alphabet">American manual alphabet</a> (<a href="/wiki/American_Sign_Language" title="American Sign Language">ASL</a> <a href="/wiki/Fingerspelling" title="Fingerspelling">fingerspelling</a>)
</td>
<td width="25%" style="border-left: 1px solid silver; border-right: 1px solid silver; border-bottom: 1px solid silver;"><a href="/wiki/Braille" title="Braille">Braille</a> <br /><a href="/wiki/Braille_pattern_dots-1" title="Braille pattern dots-1">dots-1</a>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Notes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Aes</i> is the plural of the name of the letter. The plural of the letter itself is rendered <i>A</i>s, A's, <i>a</i>s, or a's.<sup id="cite_ref-oed_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-oed-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
</ol></div></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Footnotes">Footnotes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Footnotes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-oed-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-oed_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-oed_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSimpsonWeiner1989">Simpson &amp; Weiner 1989</a>, p.&#160;1</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMcCarter1974">McCarter 1974</a>, p.&#160;54</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Britannica-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Britannica_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Britannica_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Britannica_4-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHoiberg2010">Hoiberg 2010</a>, p.&#160;1</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Coll-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Coll_5-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Coll_5-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Coll_5-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Coll_5-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHall-Quest1997">Hall-Quest 1997</a>, p.&#160;1</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Americana-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Americana_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Americana_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Americana_6-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Americana_6-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFDiringer2000">Diringer 2000</a>, p.&#160;1</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGelbWhiting1998">Gelb &amp; Whiting 1998</a>, p.&#160;45</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFAnon2004">Anon 2004</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFAnon2006">Anon 2006</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCiani_&amp;_Sheldon2010">Ciani &amp; Sheldon 2010</a>, pp.&#160;99–100</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-L204132-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-L204132_11-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-L204132_11-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-L204132_11-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2004/04132-n2740-phonetic.pdf">"L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=L2%2F04-132+Proposal+to+add+additional+phonetic+characters+to+the+UCS&amp;rft.date=2004-04-19&amp;rft.aulast=Constable&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unicode.org%2FL2%2FL2004%2F04132-n2740-phonetic.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r861714446">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Michael_Everson" title="Michael Everson">Everson, Michael</a>;  et al. (2002-03-20). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2002/02141-n2419-uralic-phonetic.pdf">"L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=L2%2F02-141%3A+Uralic+Phonetic+Alphabet+characters+for+the+UCS&amp;rft.date=2002-03-20&amp;rft.aulast=Everson&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unicode.org%2FL2%2FL2002%2F02141-n2419-uralic-phonetic.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2004/04191-n2788-laryngeals.pdf">"L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=L2%2F04-191%3A+Proposal+to+encode+six+Indo-Europeanist+phonetic+characters+in+the+UCS&amp;rft.date=2004-06-07&amp;rft.aulast=Anderson&amp;rft.aufirst=Deborah&amp;rft.au=Everson%2C+Michael&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unicode.org%2FL2%2FL2004%2F04191-n2788-laryngeals.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2011/11202-n4081-teuthonista.pdf">"L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=L2%2F11-202%3A+Revised+proposal+to+encode+%E2%80%9CTeuthonista%E2%80%9D+phonetic+characters+in+the+UCS&amp;rft.date=2011-06-02&amp;rft.aulast=Everson&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rft.au=Dicklberger%2C+Alois&amp;rft.au=Pentzlin%2C+Karl&amp;rft.au=Wandl-Vogt%2C+Eveline&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unicode.org%2FL2%2FL2011%2F11202-n4081-teuthonista.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Jensen, Hans, <i>Sign, Symbol, and Script</i>, G.P. Putman's Sons, New York, 1969.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.timesofisrael.com/spotlight/hebrew-lesson-of-the-week-letter-aleph/">"Hebrew lesson of the week: The letter Aleph"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Times_of_Israel" title="The Times of Israel">The Times of Israel</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2018-05-25</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Times+of+Israel&amp;rft.atitle=Hebrew+lesson+of+the+week%3A+The+letter+Aleph&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.timesofisrael.com%2Fspotlight%2Fhebrew-lesson-of-the-week-letter-aleph%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/Cyrillic-alphabet">"Cyrillic alphabet"</a>. <i>Encyclopedia Britannica</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2018-05-25</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Encyclopedia+Britannica&amp;rft.atitle=Cyrillic+alphabet&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.britannica.com%2Ftopic%2FCyrillic-alphabet&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Silvestre, Joseph Balthaszar; (Jacques-Joseph), M. Champollion-Figeac; Champollion-Figeac, Aimé Louis (1850). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=n2QWAAAAYAAJ&amp;pg=PA123&amp;dq=coptic+alphabet+greek+alphabet&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwir6J7t5aHbAhUhxVkKHczHBigQ6AEILDAB#v=onepage&amp;q=coptic%20alphabet&amp;f=false"><i>Universal Palaeography</i></a>. H.G. Bohn.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Universal+Palaeography&amp;rft.pub=H.G.+Bohn&amp;rft.date=1850&amp;rft.aulast=Silvestre&amp;rft.aufirst=Joseph+Balthaszar&amp;rft.au=%28Jacques-Joseph%29%2C+M.+Champollion-Figeac&amp;rft.au=Champollion-Figeac%2C+Aim%C3%A9+Louis&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dn2QWAAAAYAAJ%26pg%3DPA123%26dq%3Dcoptic%2Balphabet%2Bgreek%2Balphabet%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26ved%3D0ahUKEwir6J7t5aHbAhUhxVkKHczHBigQ6AEILDAB%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dcoptic%2520alphabet%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=fwAoAQAAIAAJ&amp;pg=PA534&amp;dq=old+italic+greek+alphabet&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwiSifqg5qHbAhUByFkKHclnBl4Q6AEIMDAC#v=onepage&amp;q=old%20italic%20greek%20alphabet&amp;f=false"><i>American journal of archaeology</i></a>. 1891.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=American+journal+of+archaeology&amp;rft.date=1891&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DfwAoAQAAIAAJ%26pg%3DPA534%26dq%3Dold%2Bitalic%2Bgreek%2Balphabet%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26ved%3D0ahUKEwiSifqg5qHbAhUByFkKHclnBl4Q6AEIMDAC%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dold%2520italic%2520greek%2520alphabet%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Steele, Philippa (2017-08-31). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=Lv4sDwAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA96&amp;dq=old+italic+script+greek&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwjAv72M56HbAhVIwFkKHWRRCOsQ6AEIUjAJ#v=onepage&amp;q=old%20italic%20script%20greek&amp;f=false"><i>Understanding Relations Between Scripts: The Aegean Writing Systems</i></a>. Oxbow Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781785706479" title="Special:BookSources/9781785706479">9781785706479</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Understanding+Relations+Between+Scripts%3A+The+Aegean+Writing+Systems&amp;rft.pub=Oxbow+Books&amp;rft.date=2017-08-31&amp;rft.isbn=9781785706479&amp;rft.aulast=Steele&amp;rft.aufirst=Philippa&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DLv4sDwAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA96%26dq%3Dold%2Bitalic%2Bscript%2Bgreek%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26ved%3D0ahUKEwjAv72M56HbAhVIwFkKHWRRCOsQ6AEIUjAJ%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dold%2520italic%2520script%2520greek%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">IV, Benjamin W. Fortson (2011-09-07). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=bSxHgej4tKMC&amp;pg=PA349&amp;dq=Runic+developed+from+old+italic&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwizsazK56HbAhVvx1kKHWJjB1UQ6AEIQjAF#v=onepage&amp;q=Runic%20developed%20from%20old%20italic&amp;f=false"><i>Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction</i></a>. John Wiley &amp; Sons. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781444359688" title="Special:BookSources/9781444359688">9781444359688</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Indo-European+Language+and+Culture%3A+An+Introduction&amp;rft.pub=John+Wiley+%26+Sons&amp;rft.date=2011-09-07&amp;rft.isbn=9781444359688&amp;rft.aulast=IV&amp;rft.aufirst=Benjamin+W.+Fortson&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DbSxHgej4tKMC%26pg%3DPA349%26dq%3DRunic%2Bdeveloped%2Bfrom%2Bold%2Bitalic%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26ved%3D0ahUKEwizsazK56HbAhVvx1kKHWJjB1UQ6AEIQjAF%23v%3Donepage%26q%3DRunic%2520developed%2520from%2520old%2520italic%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li><cite id="CITEREFAnon2004" class="citation web">Anon (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.math.cornell.edu/~mec/2003-2004/cryptography/subs/frequencies.html">"English Letter Frequency"</a>. <i>Math Explorer's Club</i>. Cornell University. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.webcitation.org/6Put1etCm?url=http://www.math.cornell.edu/~mec/2003-2004/cryptography/subs/frequencies.html">Archived</a> from the original on 28 May 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">28 May</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Math+Explorer%27s+Club&amp;rft.atitle=English+Letter+Frequency&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.au=Anon&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.math.cornell.edu%2F~mec%2F2003-2004%2Fcryptography%2Fsubs%2Ffrequencies.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFAnon2006" class="citation web">Anon (2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070125220315/http://starbase.trincoll.edu/~crypto/resources/LetFreq.html">"Percentages of Letter frequencies per Thousand words"</a>. <i>Trinity College</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://starbase.trincoll.edu/~crypto/resources/LetFreq.html">the original</a> on 25 January 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 May</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Trinity+College&amp;rft.atitle=Percentages+of+Letter+frequencies+per+Thousand+words&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.au=Anon&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fstarbase.trincoll.edu%2F~crypto%2Fresources%2FLetFreq.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFCiani_&amp;_Sheldon2010" class="citation journal">Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M. (2010). "A versus F: The effects of implicit letter priming on cognitive performance". <i>British Journal of Educational Psychology</i>. <b>80</b> (1): 99–119. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1348%2F000709909X466479">10.1348/000709909X466479</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=British+Journal+of+Educational+Psychology&amp;rft.atitle=A+versus+F%3A+The+effects+of+implicit+letter+priming+on+cognitive+performance&amp;rft.volume=80&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=99-119&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1348%2F000709909X466479&amp;rft.aulast=Ciani&amp;rft.aufirst=Keith+D.&amp;rft.au=Sheldon%2C+Kennon+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFDiringer2000" class="citation encyclopaedia">Diringer, David (2000). "A".  In Bayer, Patricia. <i>Encyclopedia Americana</i>. I: A-Anjou (First ed.). Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7172-0133-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-7172-0133-3">0-7172-0133-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+Americana&amp;rft.place=Danbury%2C+CT&amp;rft.edition=First&amp;rft.pub=Grolier+Incorporated&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=0-7172-0133-3&amp;rft.aulast=Diringer&amp;rft.aufirst=David&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFGelbWhiting1998" class="citation encyclopaedia">Gelb, I. J.; Whiting, R. M. (1998). "A".  In Ranson, K. Anne. <i>Academic American Encyclopedia</i>. I: A–Ang (First ed.). Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7172-2068-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-7172-2068-0">0-7172-2068-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=Academic+American+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=Danbury%2C+CT&amp;rft.edition=First&amp;rft.pub=Grolier+Incorporated&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-7172-2068-0&amp;rft.aulast=Gelb&amp;rft.aufirst=I.+J.&amp;rft.au=Whiting%2C+R.+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHall-Quest1997" class="citation encyclopaedia">Hall-Quest, Olga Wilbourne (1997). "A".  In Johnston, Bernard. <i><a href="/wiki/Collier%27s_Encyclopedia" title="Collier&#39;s Encyclopedia">Collier's Encyclopedia</a></i>. I: A to Ameland (First ed.). New York, NY: P.F. Collier.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=Collier%27s+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+York%2C+NY&amp;rft.edition=First&amp;rft.pub=P.F.+Collier&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.aulast=Hall-Quest&amp;rft.aufirst=Olga+Wilbourne&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHoiberg2010" class="citation encyclopaedia">Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "A". <i><a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica" title="Encyclopædia Britannica">Encyclopædia Britannica</a></i>. 1: A-ak–Bayes. Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-59339-837-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-59339-837-8">978-1-59339-837-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&amp;rft.place=Chicago%2C+IL&amp;rft.pub=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica%2C+Inc.&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-59339-837-8&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFMcCarter1974" class="citation journal">McCarter, P. Kyle (September 1974). "The Early Diffusion of the Alphabet". <i>The Biblical Archaeologist</i>. <b>37</b> (3): 54–68. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.2307%2F3210965">10.2307/3210965</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/3210965">3210965</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Biblical+Archaeologist&amp;rft.atitle=The+Early+Diffusion+of+the+Alphabet&amp;rft.volume=37&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=54-68&amp;rft.date=1974-09&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F3210965&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F3210965&amp;rft.aulast=McCarter&amp;rft.aufirst=P.+Kyle&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFSimpsonWeiner1989" class="citation encyclopaedia">Simpson, J. A.; Weiner, E.S.C., eds. (1989). "A". <i>The Oxford English Dictionary</i>. I: A–Bazouki (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-861213-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-861213-3">0-19-861213-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=The+Oxford+English+Dictionary&amp;rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&amp;rft.edition=2nd&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1989&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-861213-3&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=A&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/A" class="extiw" title="commons:A">A</a></b></i>.</td></tr></tbody></table>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Look up <i><b><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/A" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:A">A</a></b></i>&#160;or <i><b><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/a" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:a">a</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td></tr></tbody></table>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://members.peak.org/~jeremy/dictionaryclassic/chapters/pix/alphabet.gif">History of the Alphabet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/File:Wikisource-logo.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/15px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png" width="15" height="16" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/23px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/30px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="410" data-file-height="430" /></a> Texts on Wikisource:
<ul><li>"<a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_Dictionary_of_the_English_Language/A" class="extiw" title="s:A Dictionary of the English Language/A">A</a>" in <i><a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_Dictionary_of_the_English_Language" class="extiw" title="s:A Dictionary of the English Language">A Dictionary of the English Language</a></i> by <a href="/wiki/Samuel_Johnson" title="Samuel Johnson">Samuel Johnson</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">"<a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_American_Cyclop%C3%A6dia_(1879)/A" class="extiw" title="s:The American Cyclopædia (1879)/A">A</a>". <i><a href="/wiki/The_American_Cyclop%C3%A6dia" class="mw-redirect" title="The American Cyclopædia">The American Cyclopædia</a></i>. 1879.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=The+American+Cyclop%C3%A6dia&amp;rft.date=1879&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">"<a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/A" class="extiw" title="wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/A">A</a>". <i><a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edition" title="Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition">Encyclopædia Britannica</a></i> (11th ed.). 1911.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&amp;rft.edition=11th&amp;rft.date=1911&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">"<a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_New_Student%27s_Reference_Work/A" class="extiw" title="s:The New Student&#39;s Reference Work/A">A</a>". <i><a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_New_Student%27s_Reference_Work" class="extiw" title="s:The New Student&#39;s Reference Work">The New Student's Reference Work</a></i>. 1914.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=The+New+Student%27s+Reference+Work&amp;rft.date=1914&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">"<a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Collier%27s_New_Encyclopedia_(1921)/A" class="extiw" title="s:Collier&#39;s New Encyclopedia (1921)/A">A</a>". <i><a href="/wiki/Collier%27s_Encyclopedia" title="Collier&#39;s Encyclopedia">Collier's New Encyclopedia</a></i>. 1921.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=A&amp;rft.btitle=Collier%27s+New+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.date=1921&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AA" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r861714446"/></li></ul></li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Latin_script" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist collapsible expanded navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Latin_alphabet/main" title="Template:Latin alphabet/main"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Latin_alphabet/main" class="mw-redirect" title="Template talk:Latin alphabet/main"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Latin_alphabet/main&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Latin_script" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Latin_script" title="Latin script">Latin script</a></div></th></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div id="*_History&amp;#10;*_Spread&amp;#10;*_Romanization&amp;#10;*_Roman_numerals">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Latin_script" title="History of the Latin script">History</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spread_of_the_Latin_script" title="Spread of the Latin script">Spread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Romanization" title="Romanization">Romanization</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Roman_numerals" title="Roman numerals">Roman numerals</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Latin-script_alphabet" title="Latin-script alphabet">Alphabets</a> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_alphabets" title="List of Latin-script alphabets">list</a>)</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Classical_Latin_alphabet" class="mw-redirect" title="Classical Latin alphabet">Classical Latin alphabet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ISO_basic_Latin_alphabet" title="ISO basic Latin alphabet">ISO basic Latin alphabet</a></li>
<li>phonetic alphabets
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="International Phonetic Alphabet">International Phonetic Alphabet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/X-SAMPA" title="X-SAMPA">X-SAMPA</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spelling_alphabet" title="Spelling alphabet">Spelling alphabet</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Letters (<a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_letters" title="List of Latin-script letters">list</a>)</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<table style="margin: 0 -0.25em; width: 100%;">


<tbody><tr>
<th colspan="26"><div style="width:100%; background:#e0e0e0;; text-align:center;"><b>Letters of the <a href="/wiki/ISO_basic_Latin_alphabet" title="ISO basic Latin alphabet">ISO basic Latin alphabet</a></b></div>
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Aa</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/B" title="B">Bb</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/C" title="C">Cc</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/D" title="D">Dd</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/E" title="E">Ee</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/F" title="F">Ff</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/G" title="G">Gg</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/H" title="H">Hh</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/I" title="I">Ii</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/J" title="J">Jj</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/K" title="K">Kk</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/L" title="L">Ll</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/M" title="M">Mm
</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/N" title="N">Nn</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/O" title="O">Oo</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/P" title="P">Pp</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/Q" title="Q">Qq</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/R" title="R">Rr</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/S" title="S">Ss</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/T" title="T">Tt</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/U" title="U">Uu</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/V" title="V">Vv</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/W" title="W">Ww</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/X" title="X">Xx</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/Y" title="Y">Yy</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class=""><a href="/wiki/Z" title="Z">Zz
</a></span>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<th colspan="26"><div style="width:100%; background:#e0e0e0;; text-align:center;"><b>Letter A with <a href="/wiki/Diacritic" title="Diacritic">diacritics</a></b></div>
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C3%81" title="Á">Áá</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C3%80" title="À">Àà</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C4%82" title="Ă">Ăă</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%AE" class="mw-redirect" title="Ắ">Ắắ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B0" class="mw-redirect" title="Ằ">Ằằ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B4" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẵ">Ẵẵ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B2" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẳ">Ẳẳ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C3%82" title="Â">Ââ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A4" class="mw-redirect" title="Ấ">Ấấ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A6" class="mw-redirect" title="Ầ">Ầầ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%AA" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẫ">Ẫẫ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A8" class="mw-redirect" title="Ẩ">Ẩẩ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C7%8D" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǎ">Ǎǎ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C3%85" title="Å">Åå</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C7%BA" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǻ">Ǻǻ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C3%84" title="Ä">Ää</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C7%9E" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǟ">Ǟǟ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C3%83" title="Ã">Ãã</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C8%A6" title="Ȧ">Ȧȧ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C7%A0" class="mw-redirect" title="Ǡ">Ǡǡ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C4%84" title="Ą">Ąą</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C4%84%CC%81" title="Ą́">Ą́ą́</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/w/index.php?title=%C4%84%CC%83&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ą̃ (page does not exist)">Ą̃ą̃</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C4%80" title="Ā">Āā</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/w/index.php?title=%C4%80%CC%80&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ā̀ (page does not exist)">Ā̀ā̀</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A2" class="mw-redirect" title="Ả">Ảả</a></span>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C8%80" class="mw-redirect" title="Ȁ">Ȁȁ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/A%CC%8B" class="mw-redirect" title="A̋">A̋a̋</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C8%82" class="mw-redirect" title="Ȃ">Ȃȃ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%A0" class="mw-redirect" title="Ạ">Ạạ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%B6" class="mw-redirect" title="Ặ">Ặặ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%AC" class="mw-redirect" title="Ậ">Ậậ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%B8%80" class="mw-redirect" title="Ḁ">Ḁḁ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%C8%BA" class="mw-redirect" title="Ⱥ">Ⱥⱥ</a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%B6%8F" class="mw-redirect" title="ᶏ"></a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"><a href="/wiki/%E1%BA%9A" class="mw-redirect" title="ẚ"></a></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;width:3.85%;"><span class="nounderlines"></span>
</td></tr>





</tbody></table>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Latin-script_multigraph" title="Latin-script multigraph">Multigraphs</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_digraphs" title="List of Latin-script digraphs">Digraphs</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ch_(digraph)" title="Ch (digraph)">ch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cz_(digraph)" class="mw-redirect" title="Cz (digraph)">cz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/D%C5%BE" title="Dž"></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dz_(digraph)" title="Dz (digraph)">dz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gh_(digraph)" title="Gh (digraph)">gh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IJ_(digraph)" title="IJ (digraph)">ij</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ll" title="Ll">ll</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hungarian_ly" title="Hungarian ly">ly</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nh_(digraph)" title="Nh (digraph)">nh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ny_(digraph)" title="Ny (digraph)">ny</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sh_(digraph)" title="Sh (digraph)">sh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sz_(digraph)" title="Sz (digraph)">sz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Th_(digraph)" title="Th (digraph)">th</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_trigraphs" title="List of Latin-script trigraphs">Trigraphs</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Hungarian_dzs" title="Hungarian dzs">dzs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eau_(trigraph)" title="Eau (trigraph)">eau</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_tetragraphs" title="List of Latin-script tetragraphs">Tetragraphs</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/wiki/Ough_(orthography)" title="Ough (orthography)">ough</a></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_pentagraphs" title="List of Latin-script pentagraphs">Pentagraphs</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/wiki/Tzsch" title="Tzsch">tzsch</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Keyboard layouts (<a href="/wiki/List_of_Latin-script_keyboard_layouts" title="List of Latin-script keyboard layouts">list</a>)</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/QWERTY" title="QWERTY">QWERTY</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/QWERTZ" title="QWERTZ">QWERTZ</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/AZERTY" title="AZERTY">AZERTY</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dvorak_Simplified_Keyboard" title="Dvorak Simplified Keyboard">Dvorak</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Colemak" title="Colemak">Colemak</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Standards</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ISO/IEC_646" title="ISO/IEC 646">ISO/IEC 646</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Latin_script_in_Unicode" title="Latin script in Unicode">Unicode</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Western_Latin_character_sets_(computing)" title="Western Latin character sets (computing)">Western Latin character sets</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Lists</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_precomposed_Latin_characters_in_Unicode" title="List of precomposed Latin characters in Unicode">precomposed Latin characters in Unicode</a></li>
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class="interlanguage-link interwiki-da"><a href="https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Danish" lang="da" hreflang="da" class="interlanguage-link-target">Dansk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-se"><a href="https://se.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Northern Sami" lang="se" hreflang="se" class="interlanguage-link-target">Davvisámegiella</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – German" lang="de" hreflang="de" class="interlanguage-link-target">Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-dv"><a href="https://dv.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DE%87%DE%AD" title="އޭ – Divehi" lang="dv" hreflang="dv" class="interlanguage-link-target">ދިވެހިބަސް</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Estonian" lang="et" hreflang="et" class="interlanguage-link-target">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-el"><a href="https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Greek" lang="el" hreflang="el" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ελληνικά</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eml"><a href="https://eml.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Emiliano-Romagnolo" lang="egl" hreflang="egl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Emiliàn e rumagnòl</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Spanish" lang="es" hreflang="es" class="interlanguage-link-target">Español</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eo"><a href="https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Esperanto" lang="eo" hreflang="eo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Esperanto</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ext"><a href="https://ext.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Extremaduran" lang="ext" hreflang="ext" class="interlanguage-link-target">Estremeñu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eu"><a href="https://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Basque" lang="eu" hreflang="eu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Euskara</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fa"><a href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Persian" lang="fa" hreflang="fa" class="interlanguage-link-target">فارسی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fo"><a href="https://fo.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Faroese" lang="fo" hreflang="fo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Føroyskt</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a href="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(lettre)" title="A (lettre) – French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Français</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fy"><a href="https://fy.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Western Frisian" lang="fy" hreflang="fy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Frysk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fur"><a href="https://fur.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Friulian" lang="fur" hreflang="fur" class="interlanguage-link-target">Furlan</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ga"><a href="https://ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Irish" lang="ga" hreflang="ga" class="interlanguage-link-target">Gaeilge</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gv"><a href="https://gv.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Manx" lang="gv" hreflang="gv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Gaelg</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gd"><a href="https://gd.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Scottish Gaelic" lang="gd" hreflang="gd" class="interlanguage-link-target">Gàidhlig</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gl"><a href="https://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Galician" lang="gl" hreflang="gl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Galego</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-inh"><a href="https://inh.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B0)" title="A (латиница) – Ingush" lang="inh" hreflang="inh" class="interlanguage-link-target">ГӀалгӀай</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gan"><a href="https://gan.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Gan Chinese" lang="gan" hreflang="gan" class="interlanguage-link-target">贛語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gu"><a href="https://gu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AA%8F_(A)" title="એ (A) – Gujarati" lang="gu" hreflang="gu" class="interlanguage-link-target">ગુજરાતી</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-xal"><a href="https://xal.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_%D2%AF%D0%B7%D0%B3" title="A үзг – Kalmyk" lang="xal" hreflang="xal" class="interlanguage-link-target">Хальмг</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ko"><a href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Korean" lang="ko" hreflang="ko" class="interlanguage-link-target">한국어</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hy"><a href="https://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D5%AC%D5%A1%D5%BF%D5%AB%D5%B6%D5%A1%D5%AF%D5%A1%D5%B6)" title="A (լատինական) – Armenian" lang="hy" hreflang="hy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Հայերեն</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hr"><a href="https://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Croatian" lang="hr" hreflang="hr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Hrvatski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-io"><a href="https://io.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Ido" lang="io" hreflang="io" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ido</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ig"><a href="https://ig.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Igbo" lang="ig" hreflang="ig" class="interlanguage-link-target">Igbo</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ilo"><a href="https://ilo.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Iloko" lang="ilo" hreflang="ilo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ilokano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-id"><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Indonesian" lang="id" hreflang="id" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ia"><a href="https://ia.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Interlingua" lang="ia" hreflang="ia" class="interlanguage-link-target">Interlingua</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-iu"><a href="https://iu.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Inuktitut" lang="iu" hreflang="iu" class="interlanguage-link-target">ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-is"><a href="https://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Icelandic" lang="is" hreflang="is" class="interlanguage-link-target">Íslenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a href="https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Italian" lang="it" hreflang="it" class="interlanguage-link-target">Italiano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-he"><a href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Hebrew" lang="he" hreflang="he" class="interlanguage-link-target">עברית</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-jv"><a href="https://jv.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Javanese" lang="jv" hreflang="jv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Basa Jawa</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ka"><a href="https://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Georgian" lang="ka" hreflang="ka" class="interlanguage-link-target">ქართული</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-csb"><a href="https://csb.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Kashubian" lang="csb" hreflang="csb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Kaszëbsczi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-kw"><a href="https://kw.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Cornish" lang="kw" hreflang="kw" class="interlanguage-link-target">Kernowek</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sw"><a href="https://sw.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Swahili" lang="sw" hreflang="sw" class="interlanguage-link-target">Kiswahili</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-kv"><a href="https://kv.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Komi" lang="kv" hreflang="kv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Коми</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ht"><a href="https://ht.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Haitian Creole" lang="ht" hreflang="ht" class="interlanguage-link-target">Kreyòl ayisyen</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ku"><a href="https://ku.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(t%C3%AEp)" title="A (tîp) – Kurdish" lang="ku" hreflang="ku" class="interlanguage-link-target">Kurdî</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-la"><a href="https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Latin" lang="la" hreflang="la" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lv"><a href="https://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Latvian" lang="lv" hreflang="lv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latviešu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lb"><a href="https://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(Buschtaf)" title="A (Buschtaf) – Luxembourgish" lang="lb" hreflang="lb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lëtzebuergesch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Lithuanian" lang="lt" hreflang="lt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lietuvių</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lij"><a href="https://lij.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Ligurian" lang="lij" hreflang="lij" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ligure</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lfn"><a href="https://lfn.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Lingua Franca Nova" lang="lfn" hreflang="lfn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lingua Franca Nova</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lmo"><a href="https://lmo.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Lombard" lang="lmo" hreflang="lmo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lumbaart</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Hungarian" lang="hu" hreflang="hu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Magyar</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mk"><a href="https://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B0)" title="A (латиница) – Macedonian" lang="mk" hreflang="mk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Македонски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mg"><a href="https://mg.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Malagasy" lang="mg" hreflang="mg" class="interlanguage-link-target">Malagasy</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ml"><a href="https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Malayalam" lang="ml" hreflang="ml" class="interlanguage-link-target">മലയാളം</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mr"><a href="https://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Marathi" lang="mr" hreflang="mr" class="interlanguage-link-target">मराठी</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ms"><a href="https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Malay" lang="ms" hreflang="ms" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Melayu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cdo"><a href="https://cdo.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Min Dong Chinese" lang="cdo" hreflang="cdo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-my"><a href="https://my.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%80%A1%E1%80%B1_(%E1%80%A1%E1%80%80%E1%80%B9%E1%80%81%E1%80%9B%E1%80%AC)" title="အေ (အက္ခရာ) – Burmese" lang="my" hreflang="my" class="interlanguage-link-target">မြန်မာဘာသာ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nah"><a href="https://nah.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Nāhuatl" lang="nah" hreflang="nah" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nāhuatl</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fj"><a href="https://fj.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Fijian" lang="fj" hreflang="fj" class="interlanguage-link-target">Na Vosa Vakaviti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nl"><a href="https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(letter)" title="A (letter) – Dutch" lang="nl" hreflang="nl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nederlands</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ja"><a href="https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Japanese" lang="ja" hreflang="ja" class="interlanguage-link-target">日本語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nap"><a href="https://nap.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Neapolitan" lang="nap" hreflang="nap" class="interlanguage-link-target">Napulitano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-frr"><a href="https://frr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(buksteew)" title="A (buksteew) – Northern Frisian" lang="frr" hreflang="frr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nordfriisk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-no"><a href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Norwegian" lang="no" hreflang="no" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nn"><a href="https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Norwegian Nynorsk" lang="nn" hreflang="nn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk nynorsk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nrm"><a href="https://nrm.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Norman" lang="nrf" hreflang="nrf" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nouormand</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-oc"><a href="https://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Occitan" lang="oc" hreflang="oc" class="interlanguage-link-target">Occitan</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mhr"><a href="https://mhr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD_%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%88%D1%82%D0%B5)" title="A (латин тиште) – Eastern Mari" lang="mhr" hreflang="mhr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Олык марий</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uz"><a href="https://uz.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(lotin)" title="A (lotin) – Uzbek" lang="uz" hreflang="uz" class="interlanguage-link-target">Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pa"><a href="https://pa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A8%8F_(%E0%A8%85%E0%A9%B0%E0%A8%97%E0%A8%B0%E0%A9%87%E0%A8%9C%E0%A8%BC%E0%A9%80_%E0%A8%85%E0%A9%B1%E0%A8%96%E0%A8%B0)" title="ਏ (ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਅੱਖਰ) – Punjabi" lang="pa" hreflang="pa" class="interlanguage-link-target">ਪੰਜਾਬੀ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pag"><a href="https://pag.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Pangasinan" lang="pag" hreflang="pag" class="interlanguage-link-target">Pangasinan</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pl"><a href="https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Polish" lang="pl" hreflang="pl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a href="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Portuguese" lang="pt" hreflang="pt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Português</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-crh"><a href="https://crh.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Crimean Turkish" lang="crh" hreflang="crh" class="interlanguage-link-target">Qırımtatarca</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ro"><a href="https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Romanian" lang="ro" hreflang="ro" class="interlanguage-link-target">Română</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-qu"><a href="https://qu.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Quechua" lang="qu" hreflang="qu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Runa Simi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ru"><a href="https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B0)" title="A (латиница) – Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" class="interlanguage-link-target">Русский</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sc"><a href="https://sc.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Sardinian" lang="sc" hreflang="sc" class="interlanguage-link-target">Sardu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sco"><a href="https://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Scots" lang="sco" hreflang="sco" class="interlanguage-link-target">Scots</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-stq"><a href="https://stq.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Saterland Frisian" lang="stq" hreflang="stq" class="interlanguage-link-target">Seeltersk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-scn"><a href="https://scn.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Sicilian" lang="scn" hreflang="scn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Sicilianu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-simple"><a href="https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Simple English" lang="en-simple" hreflang="en-simple" class="interlanguage-link-target">Simple English</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sd"><a href="https://sd.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Sindhi" lang="sd" hreflang="sd" class="interlanguage-link-target">سنڌي</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a href="https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Slovak" lang="sk" hreflang="sk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenčina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sl"><a href="https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Slovenian" lang="sl" hreflang="sl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenščina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-szl"><a href="https://szl.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Silesian" lang="szl" hreflang="szl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ślůnski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ckb"><a href="https://ckb.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Central Kurdish" lang="ckb" hreflang="ckb" class="interlanguage-link-target">کوردی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-srn"><a href="https://srn.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Sranan Tongo" lang="srn" hreflang="srn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Sranantongo</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"><a href="https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE_%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B5)" title="A (слово латинице) – Serbian" lang="sr" hreflang="sr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Српски / srpski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sh"><a href="https://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Serbo-Croatian" lang="sh" hreflang="sh" class="interlanguage-link-target">Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-su"><a href="https://su.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Sundanese" lang="su" hreflang="su" class="interlanguage-link-target">Basa Sunda</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fi"><a href="https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Finnish" lang="fi" hreflang="fi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Suomi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sv"><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Swedish" lang="sv" hreflang="sv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Svenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tl"><a href="https://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Tagalog" lang="tl" hreflang="tl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Tagalog</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ta"><a href="https://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Tamil" lang="ta" hreflang="ta" class="interlanguage-link-target">தமிழ்</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tt"><a href="https://tt.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Tatar" lang="tt" hreflang="tt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Татарча/tatarça</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-te"><a href="https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Telugu" lang="te" hreflang="te" class="interlanguage-link-target">తెలుగు</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-th badge-Q17437798 badge-goodarticle" title="good article"><a href="https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Thai" lang="th" hreflang="th" class="interlanguage-link-target">ไทย</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tg"><a href="https://tg.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Tajik" lang="tg" hreflang="tg" class="interlanguage-link-target">Тоҷикӣ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tr"><a href="https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Turkish" lang="tr" hreflang="tr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Türkçe</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tk"><a href="https://tk.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Turkmen" lang="tk" hreflang="tk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Türkmençe</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a href="https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_(%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D1%8F)" title="A (латиниця) – Ukrainian" lang="uk" hreflang="uk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Українська</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ur"><a href="https://ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Urdu" lang="ur" hreflang="ur" class="interlanguage-link-target">اردو</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vec"><a href="https://vec.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Venetian" lang="vec" hreflang="vec" class="interlanguage-link-target">Vèneto</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vep"><a href="https://vep.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Veps" lang="vep" hreflang="vep" class="interlanguage-link-target">Vepsän kel’</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vi"><a href="https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Vietnamese" lang="vi" hreflang="vi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Tiếng Việt</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vo"><a href="https://vo.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Volapük" lang="vo" hreflang="vo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Volapük</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-wa"><a href="https://wa.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lete_A" title="Lete A – Walloon" lang="wa" hreflang="wa" class="interlanguage-link-target">Walon</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-war"><a href="https://war.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Waray" lang="war" hreflang="war" class="interlanguage-link-target">Winaray</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-yi"><a href="https://yi.wikipedia.org/wiki/A" title="A – Yiddish" 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<script type="application/ld+json">{"@context":"https:\/\/schema.org","@type":"Article","name":"A","url":"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/A","sameAs":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/wiki\/Q1","mainEntity":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/wiki\/Q1","author":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Contributors to Wikimedia projects"},"publisher":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.","logo":{"@type":"ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/www.wikimedia.org\/static\/images\/wmf-hor-googpub.png"}},"datePublished":"2018-11-14T03:43:33Z","dateModified":"2018-11-14T03:47:54Z"}</script>
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This isn't especially thorough but I would estimate the increase to be between .2 KiB and 2 KiB gzipped with a skew towards the low end.

In the first example, what's the gzipped change for the whole page? Not just the metadata. Make sure that you're using similar gzipping settings as we do in production, as compression effort may vary depending on the settings. It's also important that the made up article name in the metadata matches the actual article you're testing this on. Otherwise you're introducing text differences that won't compress well, which never happen in the real world. Similarly, an image path that long isn't actually possible. Image paths are based on the corresponding file page title, which is limited to 255 bytes: https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Page_title_size_limitations

The second example is the kind of difference I would have expected. 1.4KiB turning into 200bytes once compressed alongside the rest of the page, which will have a lot of text redundancy with the introduced metadata. More importantly, it's only a 0.5% increase. Which is a very reasonable amount, given that adding a few new sentences to the article would probably result in the same HTML size increase.

These were approximations based on the 1h time estimate given to this task. I've redone the calculations by plugging in the following dummy values into a single character article (worse case) and a copy of List of compositions by Franz Schubert on my local instance:

Worse case: large SEO data on a one character article.

<script type="application/ld+json">{"@context":"https:\/\/schema.org","@type":"Article","name":"buBBssEkrEXfqH27yhxzJpFL8moNdMxppdVWrAIigjGluXu04T4FkH8o2AdyH8cFtaHJwMflGDKsOqI3vSMsQreYFfmRIqFvFAn7ZzU1geW0KqZX0XnqF1FXuFOzqlYTeEW5xdq2ZBHonwjb4vN1uvSIey0BqmbgUdEG5lgqIFzri8fBXvVzHhUx4qHD79eagS03q7yf8bLvVEvLnEdxqmimT7X5jxDUn22zhBcMBM7Gzr0C8TOk3lsmyeHKzd5","url":"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/buBBssEkrEXfqH27yhxzJpFL8moNdMxppdVWrAIigjGluXu04T4FkH8o2AdyH8cFtaHJwMflGDKsOqI3vSMsQreYFfmRIqFvFAn7ZzU1geW0KqZX0XnqF1FXuFOzqlYTeEW5xdq2ZBHonwjb4vN1uvSIey0BqmbgUdEG5lgqIFzri8fBXvVzHhUx4qHD79eagS03q7yf8bLvVEvLnEdxqmimT7X5jxDUn22zhBcMBM7Gzr0C8TOk3lsmyeHKzd5","sameAs":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/wiki\/Q1234567","mainEntity":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/wiki\/Q1234567","author":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Contributors to Wikimedia projects"},"publisher":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.","logo":{"@type":"ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/www.wikimedia.org\/static\/images\/wmf-hor-googpub.png"}},"datePublished":"2012-09-24T03:43:33Z","dateModified":"2008-05-16T23:47:54Z","image":"https:\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/c\/c0\/t4I7RVa1peHrk9Mcn61s6HrGXuaLFBj8nP9DfxHzTibLaKIYu8ptJFS7IkBV5PtEzGK2ki9oHDBNp8efsBwKldoDF5iKyaHtoarLHGRfKZu9TNchY9GFymx13LjZoQrMdlAxalWdtT7AGy1eETAywNw8b0LWm6NWTu4QjM0AE4M15qHVqCXwCKeZ89xqfvaQWXjbMyMT3n4Rim2uUnIPVUyib8QFCBVisQE4qDxX7ZwvhIKdi7U1g0g3MAw1u3r.jpg","headline":"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure do"}</script>
Best case: small SEO data on a large article, List of compositions by Franz Schubert.

<script type="application/ld+json">{"@context":"https:\/\/schema.org","@type":"Article","name":"A","url":"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/A","sameAs":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/wiki\/Q1","mainEntity":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/wiki\/Q1","author":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Contributors to Wikimedia projects"},"publisher":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.","logo":{"@type":"ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/www.wikimedia.org\/static\/images\/wmf-hor-googpub.png"}},"datePublished":"2018-11-14T03:43:33Z","dateModified":"2018-11-14T03:43:33Z"}</script>

The results are:

ScenarioSEOCompressedUncompressedCompressed increaseUncompressed Increase
Worst caseNo17 734 B109 937 B
Worst caseYes18 837 B112 460 B1 103 B2 523 B
Best caseNo198 443 B1 784 446 B
Best caseYes198 933 B1 785 849 B490 B1 403 B

I just ran these numbers using Curl. Let me know if a more formal analysis is necessary.

This all looks very reasonable to me, thanks.

ovasileva closed this task as Resolved.Nov 19 2018, 6:07 PM
ovasileva claimed this task.

This all looks very reasonable to me, thanks.

Thanks @Gilles, @Niedzielski, closing this.