For a few releases now we have iwbacklinks. However, while it is exposed in the API, there is no special page for it.
This would be similar to Special:LinkSearch and Special:WhatLinksHere from the user perspective in that it takes a target (in this case an interwiki prefix and title), and paginates through pages on the current wiki that link to it.
T3886: A cross-wiki "What links here" (aggregate local iwbacklinks from wikis)
T14833: Provide Special:ExternalLinksFromHere which displays in-line links from Wikipedia, Wikibooks, commons, meta, etc.